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Introduction - Sudan:
BackgroundMilitary regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from the UK in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but broke out again in 1983. The second war and famine-related effects resulted in more than 4 million people displaced and, according to rebel estimates, more than 2 million deaths over a period of two decades. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years. After which, a referendum for independence is scheduled to be held. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly 2 million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. As of late 2006, peacekeeping troops were struggling to stabilize the situation, which has become increasingly regional in scope, and has brought instability to eastern Chad, and Sudanese incursions into the Central African Republic. Sudan also has faced large refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia and Chad. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and lack of government support have chronically obstructed the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.
Location - Sudan:
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea
Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 2,505,810 sq km
land: 2.376 million sq km
water: 129,810 sq km
Area comparativeslightly more than one-quarter the size of the US
Land boundariestotal: 7,687 km
border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km, Uganda 435 km
Coastline853 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)
Terraingenerally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north
Elevation extremeslowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m
Natural resourcespetroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold, hydropower
Land usearable land: 6.78%
permanent crops: 0.17%
other: 93.05% (2005)
Irrigated land18,630 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsdust storms and periodic persistent droughts
Environment current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelargest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries
People - Sudan:
Population39,379,358 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.6% (male 8,371,628/female 8,016,880)
15-64 years: 56% (male 11,080,025/female 10,956,458)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 504,957/female 449,410) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.7 years
male: 18.6 years
female: 18.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate2.082% (2007 est.)
Birth rate34.86 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate14.39 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.044 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.011 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.124 male(s)/female
total population: 1.027 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 91.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 91.95 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 91.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 49.11 years
male: 48.24 years
female: 50.03 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate4.69 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate2.3% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids400,000 (2001 est.)
Hiv aids deaths23,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2007)
Ethnic groupsblack 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%
ReligionsSunni Muslim 70% (in north), Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum), indigenous beliefs 25%
LanguagesArabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic languages, English
note: program of Arabization in process
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.1%
male: 71.8%
female: 50.5% (2003 est.)
Government - Sudan:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Government typeGovernment of National Unity (GNU) - the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); the NCP, which came to power by military coup in 1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulates national elections for the 2008 - 2009 timeframe.
Capitalname: Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions25 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Aali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazirah (El Gezira), Al Khartum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al Wahdah (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shamaliyah (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Bahr al Jabal), Gharb al Istiwaiyah (Western Equatoria), Gharb Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr al Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqali (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala), Nahr an Nil (Nile), Shamal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr al Ghazal), Shamal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shamal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwaiyah (Eastern Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)
Independence1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 1 January (1956)
Constitutionconstitution implemented on 30 June 1998, partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR; under the CPA, Interim National Constitution ratified 5 July 2005; Constitution of Southern Sudan signed December 2005
Legal systembased on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; however, the CPA establishes some protections for non-Muslims in Khartoum; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; the southern legal system is still developing under the CPA following the civil war; Islamic law will not apply to the southern states
Suffrage17 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Salva KIIR (since 4 August 2005), Vice President Ali Osman TAHA (since 20 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIRs cabinet
elections: election last held 13-23 December 2000; next to be held no later than July 2009 under terms of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 86.5%, Jaafar Muhammed NUMAYRI 9.6%, three other candidates received a combined vote of 3.9%; election widely viewed as rigged; all popular opposition parties boycotted elections because of a lack of guarantees for a free and fair election
note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudans Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in March 1996
Legislative branchbicameral National Legislature consists of a Council of States (50 seats; members indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms) and a National Assembly (450 seats; members presently appointed, but in the future 75% of members to be directly elected and 25% elected in special or indirect elections; to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held 13-22 December 2000 (next to be held in 2008-2009 timeframe)
election results: NCP 355, others 5; note - replaced by appointments under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Judicial branchConstitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of the National Judiciary
Political parties and leadersNational Congress Party or NCP [Ibrahim Ahmed OMAR]; Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva Mayardit KIIR]; and elements of the National Democratic Alliance or NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]; note - all political parties listed above in the Government of National Unity
Political pressure groups and leadersUmma Party [Sadiq al-MAHDI]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge dAffaires, Ad Interim John UKEC Lueth (since 17 October 2006)
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge dAffaires Alberto M. Fernandez
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Avenue, Khartoum
mailing address: P. O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (183) 774701
FAX: [249] (183) 774137
note: US Consul in Cairo is providing backup service for Khartoum;
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
Economy - Sudan:
Economy overviewSudan has turned around a struggling economy with sound economic policies and infrastructure investments, but it still faces formidable economic problems starting from its low level of per capita output. From 1997 to date, Sudan has been implementing IMF macroeconomic reforms. In 1999, Sudan began exporting crude oil and in the last quarter of 1999 recorded its first trade surplus, which, along with monetary policy, has stabilized the exchange rate. Increased oil production, high oil prices, revived light industry, and expanded export processing zones helped sustain GDP growth at about 10% in 2006. Agricultural production remains Sudans most important sector, employing 80% of the work force and contributing 35% of GDP, but most farms remain rain-fed and susceptible to drought. Chronic instability - resulting from the long-standing North/South civil war as well as the Darfur conflict, adverse weather, and weak world agricultural prices - ensure that much of the population will remain at or below the poverty line for years. In late 2006, the government announced its intention to introduce a new currency, the Sudan Pound, from January 2007 at an exchange rate of $1.00 equals 2 Sudanese Pounds.
Gdp purchasing power parity $97.47 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $25.5 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate9.6% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $2,400 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 35.5%
industry: 24.8%
services: 39.7% (2006 est.)
Labor force7.415 million (1996 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate18.7% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line40% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate consumer prices 9% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 25.3% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $7.943 billion
expenditures: $10.1 billion; including capital expenditures of $304 million (2006 est.)
Public debt59.6% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock
Industriesoil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly
Industrial production growth rate8.5% (1999 est.)
Electricity production3.845 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption3.576 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production344,700 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption66,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exports279,100 bbl/day (2004)
Oil imports7,945 bbl/day (2004)
Oil proved reserves1.6 billion bbl (2006 est.)
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves84.95 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance-$4.51 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$7.505 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesoil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar
Exports partnersJapan 49.6%, China 32%, Saudi Arabia 3.1% (2006)
Imports$8.693 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesfoodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat
Imports partnersChina 18.2%, Saudi Arabia 9.2%, UAE 5.8%, Egypt 5.3%, Germany 5.2%, India 4.6%, France 4.1% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.552 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$29.69 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$172 million (2001)
Currency code Sudanese dinar (SDD)
Exchange ratesSudanese dinars per US dollar - 217.2 (2006), 243.61 (2005), 257.91 (2004), 260.98 (2003), 263.31 (2002)
Communications - Sudan:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use636,900 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular4.683 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: large, well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 249; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2000)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations3 (1997)
Internet country
Internet hosts16 (2006)
Internet users3.5 million (2006)
Transportation - Sudan:
Airports88 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 73
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 37
under 914 m: 17 (2006)
Heliports1 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 156 km; oil 3,930 km; refined products 1,613 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 5,978 km
narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (1999)
Waterways4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2006)
Merchant marinetotal: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,326 GRT/14,068 DWT
by type: cargo 1, livestock carrier 1
registered in other countries: 2 (Panama 1, Saudi Arabia 1) (2006)
Ports and terminalsPort Sudan
Military - Sudan:
Military branchesSudanese Peoples Armed Forces (SPAF): Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Popular Defense Forces (2007)
Military service age and obligation18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 8,291,695
females age 18-49: 8,135,683 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 5,427,474
females age 18-49: 5,649,566 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 442,915
females age 18-49: 426,320 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 116,746 (Eritrea), 20,000 (Chad), 14,633 (Ethiopia), 7,895 (Uganda), 5,023 (Central African Republic)
IDPs: 5,300,000 - 6,200,000 (internal conflict since 1980s; ongoing genocide in Darfur region, IDP registration for return to South Sudan started in 2005) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp3% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalthe effects of Sudans almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; as of 2006, Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda provided shelter for over half a million Sudanese refugees, which includes 240,000 Darfur residents driven from their homes by Janjawid armed militia and the Sudanese military forces; Sudan, in turn, hosted about 116,000 Eritreans, 20,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians, Ugandans, Central Africans, and Congolese as refugees; in February 2006, Sudan and DROC signed an agreement to repatriate 13,300 Sudanese and 6,800 Congolese; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; the boundary that separates Kenya and Sudans sovereignty is unclear in the Ilemi Triangle, which Kenya has administered since colonial times; while Sudan claims to administer the Halaib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel; both states withdrew their military presence in the 1990s, and Egypt has invested in and effectively administers the area; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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