South Africa

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Introduction - South Africa:
CountrySouth Africa
BackgroundAfter the British seized the Cape of Good Hope area in 1806, many of the Dutch settlers (the Boers) trekked north to found their own republics. The discovery of diamonds (1867) and gold (1886) spurred wealth and immigration and intensified the subjugation of the native inhabitants. The Boers resisted British encroachments but were defeated in the Boer War (1899-1902). The resulting Union of South Africa operated under a policy of apartheid - the separate development of the races. The 1990s brought an end to apartheid politically and ushered in black majority rule.
Location - South Africa:
LocationSouthern Africa, at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Geographic coordinates29 00 S, 24 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 1,219,912 sq km
land: 1,219,912 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Prince Edward Islands (Marion Island and Prince Edward Island)
Area comparativeslightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 4,862 km
border countries: Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 967 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km
Coastline2,798 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climatemostly semiarid; subtropical along east coast; sunny days, cool nights
Terrainvast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plain
Elevation extremeslowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Njesuthi 3,408 m
Natural resourcesgold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum, copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas
Land usearable land: 12.1%
permanent crops: 0.79%
other: 87.11% (2005)
Irrigated land14,980 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsprolonged droughts
Environment current issueslack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires extensive water conservation and control measures; growth in water usage outpacing supply; pollution of rivers from agricultural runoff and urban discharge; air pollution resulting in acid rain; soil erosion; desertification
Environment international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography noteSouth Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely surrounds Swaziland
People - South Africa:
Population43,997,828
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 29.1% (male 6,447,623/female 6,370,909)
15-64 years: 65.5% (male 14,040,210/female 14,761,179)
65 years and over: 5.4% (male 917,227/female 1,460,680) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 24.3 years
male: 23.5 years
female: 25.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate-0.46% (2007 est.)
Birth rate17.94 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate22.45 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.012 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.951 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.628 male(s)/female
total population: 0.947 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 59.44 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 62.95 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 55.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 42.45 years
male: 43.21 years
female: 41.66 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate2.16 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate21.5% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids5.3 million (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths370,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: South African(s)
adjective: South African
Ethnic groupsblack African 79%, white 9.6%, colored 8.9%, Indian/Asian 2.5% (2001 census)
ReligionsZion Christian 11.1%, Pentecostal/Charismatic 8.2%, Catholic 7.1%, Methodist 6.8%, Dutch Reformed 6.7%, Anglican 3.8%, Muslim 1.5%, other Christian 36%, other 2.3%, unspecified 1.4%, none 15.1% (2001 census)
LanguagesIsiZulu 23.8%, IsiXhosa 17.6%, Afrikaans 13.3%, Sepedi 9.4%, English 8.2%, Setswana 8.2%, Sesotho 7.9%, Xitsonga 4.4%, other 7.2% (2001 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 86.4%
male: 87%
female: 85.7% (2003 est.)
Government - South Africa:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of South Africa
conventional short form: South Africa
former: Union of South Africa
abbreviation: RSA
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Pretoria (administrative capital)
geographic coordinates: 25 42 S, 28 13 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Cape Town (legislative capital); Bloemfontein (judicial capital)
Administrative divisions9 provinces; Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North-West, Northern Cape, Western Cape
Independence31 May 1910 (Union of South Africa formed from four British colonies: Cape Colony, Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State); 31 May 1961 (republic declared)
National holidayFreedom Day, 27 April (1994)
Constitution10 December 1996; this new constitution was certified by the Constitutional Court on 4 December 1996, was signed by then President MANDELA on 10 December 1996, and entered into effect on 4 February 1997; it is being implemented in phases
Legal systembased on Roman-Dutch law and English common law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Phumzile MLAMBO-NGCUKA (since 23 June 2005); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Thabo MBEKI (since 16 June 1999); Executive Deputy President Phumzile MLAMBO-NGCUKA (since 23 June 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009)
election results: Thabo MBEKI elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - 100% (by acclamation)
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament consisting of the National Assembly (400 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional representation to serve five-year terms) and the National Council of Provinces (90 seats, 10 members elected by each of the nine provincial legislatures for five-year terms; has special powers to protect regional interests, including the safeguarding of cultural and linguistic traditions among ethnic minorities); note - following the implementation of the new constitution on 4 February 1997, the former Senate was disbanded and replaced by the National Council of Provinces with essentially no change in membership and party affiliations, although the new institutions responsibilities have been changed somewhat by the new constitution
elections: National Assembly and National Council of Provinces - last held on 14 April 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - ANC 69.7%, DA 12.4%, IFP 7%, UDM 2.3%, NNP 1.7%, ACDP 1.6%, other 5.3%; seats by party - ANC 279, DA 50, IFP 28, UDM 9, NNP 7, ACDP 6, other 21; National Council of Provinces - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branchConstitutional Court; Supreme Court of Appeals; High Courts; Magistrate Courts
Political parties and leadersAfrican Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE]; African National Congress or ANC [Thabo MBEKI]; Democratic Alliance or DA [Helen ZILLE]; Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter MULDER]; Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI]; New National Party or NNP; Pan-Africanist Congress or PAC [Motsoko PHEKO]; United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA]
Political pressure groups and leadersCongress of South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general secretary]; South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE, general secretary]; South African National Civics Organization or SANCO [Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]; note - COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the ANC
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, BIS, C, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, NSG, ONUB, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMEE, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Barbara Joyce Mosima MASEKELA
chancery: 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 232-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 265-1607
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Eric BOST
embassy: 877 Pretorius Street, Pretoria
mailing address: P. O. Box 9536, Pretoria 0001
telephone: [27] (12) 342-1048
FAX: [27] (12) 342-2244
consulate(s) general: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg
Flag descriptiontwo equal width horizontal bands of red (top) and blue separated by a central green band which splits into a horizontal Y, the arms of which end at the corners of the hoist side; the Y embraces a black isosceles triangle from which the arms are separated by narrow yellow bands; the red and blue bands are separated from the green band and its arms by narrow white stripes
Economy - South Africa:
Economy overviewSouth Africa is a middle-income, emerging market with an abundant supply of natural resources; well-developed financial, legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors; a stock exchange that ranks among the 10 largest in the world; and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers throughout the region. However, growth has not been strong enough to lower South Africas high unemployment rate, and daunting economic problems remain from the apartheid era - especially poverty and lack of economic empowerment among the disadvantaged groups. South African economic policy is fiscally conservative but pragmatic focusing on targeting inflation and liberalizing trade as means to increase job growth and household income.
Gdp purchasing power parity $587.5 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $201.4 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate5% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $13,300 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 2.6%
industry: 30.3%
services: 67.1% (2006 est.)
Labor force16.09 million economically active (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 30%
industry: 25%
services: 45% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate25.5% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line50% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 45.9% (1994)
Distribution of family income gini index59.3 (1995)
Inflation rate consumer prices 5% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 17.1% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $72.15 billion
expenditures: $75.93 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt32.9% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscorn, wheat, sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; beef, poultry, mutton, wool, dairy products
Industriesmining (worlds largest producer of platinum, gold, chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textiles, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizer, foodstuffs, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate7.1% (2006 est.)
Electricity production227.2 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption207 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports12.4 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity imports8.026 billion kWh (2004)
Oil production229,900 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption502,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil imports398,000 bbl/day (2006)
Oil proved reserves15.68 million bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas production2.23 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption2.23 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves28.32 million cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance-$12.69 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$59.15 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesgold, diamonds, platinum, other metals and minerals, machinery and equipment
Exports partnersJapan 12.1%, US 11.8%, UK 9%, Germany 7.6%, Netherlands 5.3%, China 4% (2006)
Imports$61.53 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, scientific instruments, foodstuffs
Imports partnersGermany 12.6%, China 10%, US 7.6%, Japan 6.6%, Saudi Arabia 5.3%, UK 5% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$23.74 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$55.47 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$487.5 million (2000)
Currency code rand (ZAR)
Exchange ratesrand per US dollar - 6.7649 (2006), 6.3593 (2005), 6.4597 (2004), 7.5648 (2003), 10.5407 (2002)
Communications - South Africa:
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
Telephones main lines in use4.729 million (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular33.96 million (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: the system is the best developed and most modern in Africa
domestic: consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines, coaxial cables, microwave radio relay links, fiber-optic cable, radiotelephone communication stations, and wireless local loops; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria
international: country code - 27; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 2 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 14, FM 347 (plus 243 repeaters), shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations556 (plus 144 network repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code.za
Internet hosts645,179 (2006)
Internet users5.1 million (2005)
Transportation - South Africa:
Airports731 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 146
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
914 to 1,523 m: 67
under 914 m: 13 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 585
1,524 to 2,437 m: 34
914 to 1,523 m: 302
under 914 m: 249 (2006)
Pipelinescondensate 100 km; gas 1,062 km; oil 966 km; refined products 1,354 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 20,872 km
narrow gauge: 20,436 km 1.065-m gauge (8,931 km electrified); 436 km 0.610-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 362,099 km
paved: 73,506 km (includes 239 km of expressways)
unpaved: 288,593 km (2002)
Merchant marinetotal: 3 ships (1000 GRT or over) 32,815 GRT/39,295 DWT
by type: container 1, petroleum tanker 2
foreign-owned: 1 (Denmark 1)
registered in other countries: 8 (Panama 3, UK 5) (2006)
Ports and terminalsCape Town, Durban, East London, Port Elizabeth, Richards Bay, Saldanha Bay
Military - South Africa:
Military branchesSouth African National Defense Force (SANDF): South African Army, South African Navy (SAN), South African Air Force (SAAF), Joint Operations Command, Joint Support Command, Military Intelligence, Military Health Service (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; women have a long history of military service in noncombat roles dating back to World War I (2004)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 10,354,769
females age 18-49: 10,626,550 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 4,927,757
females age 18-49: 4,609,071 (2005 est.)
Military notewith the end of apartheid and the establishment of majority rule, former military, black homelands forces, and ex-opposition forces were integrated into the South African National Defense Force (SANDF); as of 2003 the integration process was considered complete
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 512,407
females age 18-49: 506,078 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 10,609 (Democratic Republic of Congo), 7,548 (Somalia), 5,764 (Angola) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp1.7% (2006)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: South Africa is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for forced labor and sexual exploitation; women and girls are trafficked internally - and occasionally to European and Asian countries - for sexual exploitation; women from other African countries are trafficked to South Africa and, less frequently, onward to Europe for sexual exploitation; men and boys are trafficked from neighboring countries for forced agricultural labor; Asian and Eastern European women are trafficked to South Africa for debt-bonded sexual exploitation
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - South Africa is placed on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to show increasing efforts to address trafficking in 2005
Disputes internationalSouth Africa has placed military along the border to apprehend the thousands of Zimbabweans fleeing economic dysfunction and political persecution; as of January 2007, South Africa also supports large numbers of refugees and asylum seekers from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (33,000), Somalia (20,000), Burundi (6,500), and other states in Africa (26,000); managed dispute with Namibia over the location of the boundary in the Orange River; in 2006, Swazi king advocates resort to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from South Africa
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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