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Introduction - Peru:
Location - Peru:
People - Peru:
Government - Peru:
Economy - Peru:

Economy overview

Perus economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Perus coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 2002-06, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the governments prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, underemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Economic growth continues to be driven by exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products, and by expectations for the Camisea natural gas megaproject and for other promising energy projects. Upon taking office, President GARCIA announced Sierra Exportadora, a program aimed at promoting economic growth in Perus southern and central highlands.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$186.6 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$77.14 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

8% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$6,600 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 8.5%
industry: 26.4%
services: 65% (2006 est.)

Labor force

9.21 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 9%
industry: 18%
services: 73% (2001)

Unemployment rate

7.2% in metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

54% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)

Distribution of family income gini index

49.8 (2000)

Inflation rate consumer prices

2.1% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

20.3% of GDP (2006 est.)


revenues: $25.5 billion
expenditures: $25.18 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion for general government, but excluding private enterprises (2006 est.)

Public debt

33.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

asparagus, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish, guinea pigs


mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing

Industrial production growth rate

7% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

23.99 billion kWh (2004 est.)

Electricity consumption

22.31 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

0 kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

0 kWh (2004)

Oil production

120,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

156,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

53,040 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

952.8 million bbl (1 January 2005 est.)

Natural gas production

860 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

860 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

246.8 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

$1.515 billion (2006 est.)


$22.69 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee, potatoes, asparagus, textiles, guinea pigs

Exports partners

US 25.6%, China 12%, Canada 8.4%, Chile 5.9%, Japan 5.4%, Switzerland 4.2% (2006)


$15.38 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper

Imports partners

US 20.1%, Brazil 8.1%, Ecuador 7.5%, China 6.9%, Chile 6.4%, Colombia 6.2%, Argentina 5.2%, Venezuela 4.3% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$17.04 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$27.93 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$491 million (2002)

Currency code

nuevo sol (PEN)

Exchange rates

nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.2742 (2006), 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003), 3.5165 (2002)

Communications - Peru:
Transportation - Peru:
Military - Peru:
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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