Peru

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Introduction - Peru:

Country

Peru

Background

Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORIs election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the presidents increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government - Perus first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, returned to the presidency with promises to improve social conditions and maintain fiscal responsibility.

Location - Peru:

Location

Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador

Geographic coordinates

10 00 S, 76 00 W

Map references

South America

Area

total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries

total: 7,461 km
border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline

2,414 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm

Climate

varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes

Terrain

western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources

copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas

Land use

arable land: 2.88%
permanent crops: 0.47%
other: 96.65% (2005)

Irrigated land

12,000 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity

Environment current issues

deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes

Environment international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

shares control of Lago Titicaca, worlds highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River

People - Peru:

Population

28,674,757 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 30.3% (male 4,427,080/female 4,271,390)
15-64 years: 64.2% (male 9,267,642/female 9,150,816)
65 years and over: 5.4% (male 734,533/female 823,296) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 25.5 years
male: 25.2 years
female: 25.8 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

1.289% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

20.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.036 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.013 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.892 male(s)/female
total population: 1.013 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 29.96 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.47 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 70.14 years
male: 68.33 years
female: 72.04 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.46 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

0.5% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

82,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

4,200 (2003 est.)

Nationality

noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian

Ethnic groups

Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

Religions

Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)

Languages

Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.7%
male: 93.5%
female: 82.1% (2004 est.)

Government - Peru:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru

Government type

constitutional republic

Capital

name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

Independence

28 July 1821 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Constitution

29 December 1993

Legal system

based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - for the first time in recent elections, members of the military and national police were eligible to vote in the 2006 elections

Executive branch

chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006)
note: Prime Minister Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 August 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential and congressional elections held 9 April 2006 with runoff election held 4 June 2006; next to be held in April 2011
election results: Alan GARCIA elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%

Legislative branch

unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 April 2006 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%, other 14.6%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2

Judicial branch

Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)

Political parties and leaders

Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF [Martha CHAVEZ Cossio] (a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva Mayoria, and Si Cumple); Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC [Drago KISIC] (a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes); Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; Nationalist Party Uniting Peru (Partido Nacionalista Uniendo al Peru) or UPP [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso] (a coalition of Union for Peru (UPP) and Peruvian Nationalist Party (PNP)); National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [David WAISMAN]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA)

Political pressure groups and leaders

leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]

International organization participation

APEC, CAN, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Felipe ORTIZ de Zevallos
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington, DC

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397

Flag description

three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

Economy - Peru:

Economy overview

Perus economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Perus coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 2002-06, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the governments prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, underemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Economic growth continues to be driven by exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products, and by expectations for the Camisea natural gas megaproject and for other promising energy projects. Upon taking office, President GARCIA announced Sierra Exportadora, a program aimed at promoting economic growth in Perus southern and central highlands.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$186.6 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$77.14 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

8% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$6,600 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 8.5%
industry: 26.4%
services: 65% (2006 est.)

Labor force

9.21 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 9%
industry: 18%
services: 73% (2001)

Unemployment rate

7.2% in metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

54% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)

Distribution of family income gini index

49.8 (2000)

Inflation rate consumer prices

2.1% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

20.3% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $25.5 billion
expenditures: $25.18 billion; including capital expenditures of $1.8 billion for general government, but excluding private enterprises (2006 est.)

Public debt

33.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

asparagus, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish, guinea pigs

Industries

mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing

Industrial production growth rate

7% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

23.99 billion kWh (2004 est.)

Electricity consumption

22.31 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

0 kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

0 kWh (2004)

Oil production

120,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

156,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

53,040 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

952.8 million bbl (1 January 2005 est.)

Natural gas production

860 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

860 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

246.8 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

$1.515 billion (2006 est.)

Exports

$22.69 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee, potatoes, asparagus, textiles, guinea pigs

Exports partners

US 25.6%, China 12%, Canada 8.4%, Chile 5.9%, Japan 5.4%, Switzerland 4.2% (2006)

Imports

$15.38 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper

Imports partners

US 20.1%, Brazil 8.1%, Ecuador 7.5%, China 6.9%, Chile 6.4%, Colombia 6.2%, Argentina 5.2%, Venezuela 4.3% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$17.04 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$27.93 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$491 million (2002)

Currency code

nuevo sol (PEN)

Exchange rates

nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.2742 (2006), 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003), 3.5165 (2002)

Communications - Peru:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

2.332 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

8.5 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate for most requirements
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable

Radio broadcast stations

AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)

Television broadcast stations

13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)

Internet country code

.pe

Internet hosts

269,981 (2006)

Internet users

6.1 million (2006)

Transportation - Peru:

Airports

268 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 54
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 214
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 63
under 914 m: 124 (2006)

Heliports

1 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 983 km; gas/liquid petroleum gas 61 km; liquid natural gas 106 km; liquid petroleum gas 517 km; oil 1,754 km; refined products 13 km (2006)

Railways

total: 1,989 km
standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 263 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)

Roadways

total: 78,829 km
paved: 11,351 km (includes 276 km of expressways)
unpaved: 67,478 km (2004)

Waterways

8,808 km
note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2007)

Merchant marine

total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 38,954 GRT/62,255 DWT
by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1
foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)
registered in other countries: 15 (Panama 15) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries

Military - Peru:

Military branches

Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP (includes naval air, naval infantry, and coast guard)), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2007)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory military service (1999)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 6,647,874
females age 18-49: 6,544,408 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 4,938,417
females age 18-49: 5,278,511 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 277,105
females age 18-49: 269,799 (2005 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions) (2005)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

1.5% (2006)

Disputes international

Chile and Ecuador rejected Perus November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Perus shared border; Peru rejects Bolivias claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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