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Introduction - Zambia:
BackgroundThe territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the [British] South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule, but the subsequent vote in 1996 saw blatant harassment of opposition parties. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. The new president launched an anticorruption task force in 2002, but the government has yet to make a prosecution. The Zambian leader was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair.
Location - Zambia:
LocationSouthern Africa, east of Angola
Geographic coordinates15 00 S, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 752,614 sq km
land: 740,724 sq km
water: 11,890 sq km
Area comparativeslightly larger than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 5,664 km
border countries: Angola 1,110 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,930 km, Malawi 837 km, Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zimbabwe 797 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatetropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrainmostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Elevation extremeslowest point: Zambezi river 329 m
highest point: unnamed location in Mafinga Hills 2,301 m
Natural resourcescopper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land usearable land: 6.99%
permanent crops: 0.04%
other: 92.97% (2005)
Irrigated land1,560 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsperiodic drought, tropical storms (November to April)
Environment current issuesair pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelandlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe
People - Zambia:
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 45.7% (male 2,633,578/female 2,608,714)
15-64 years: 51.9% (male 2,969,913/female 2,990,923)
65 years and over: 2.4% (male 116,818/female 157,501) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.8 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.664% (2007 est.)
Birth rate40.78 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate21.46 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-2.68 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.993 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.742 male(s)/female
total population: 0.994 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 100.71 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 105.48 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 95.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 38.44 years
male: 38.34 years
female: 38.54 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate5.31 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate16.5% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids920,000 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths89,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2007)
Ethnic groupsAfrican 98.7%, European 1.1%, other 0.2%
ReligionsChristian 50%-75%, Muslim and Hindu 24%-49%, indigenous beliefs 1%
LanguagesEnglish (official), major vernaculars - Bemba, Kaonda, Lozi, Lunda, Luvale, Nyanja, Tonga, and about 70 other indigenous languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 80.6%
male: 86.8%
female: 74.8% (2003 est.)
Government - Zambia:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence24 October 1964 (from UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitution24 August 1991; amended in 1996 to establish presidential term limits
Legal systembased on English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Rupiah BANDA (since 9 October 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Levy MWANAWASA (since 2 January 2002); Vice President Rupiah BANDA (since 9 October 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 28 September 2006 (next to be held in 2011); vice president appointed by the president
election results: Levy MWANAWASA reelected president; percent of vote - Levy MWANAWASA 43.0%, Michael SATA 29.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA 25.3%, Godfrey MIYANDA 1.6%, Winright NGONDO 0.8%
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly (158 seats; 150 members are elected by popular vote, 8 members are appointed by the president, to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 28 September 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MMD 72, PF 44, UDA 27, ULP 2, NDF 1, independents 2; seats not determined 2
Judicial branchSupreme Court (the final court of appeal; justices are appointed by the president); High Court (has unlimited jurisdiction to hear civil and criminal cases)
Political parties and leadersAll Peoples Congress Party [Winright NGONDO]; Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI]; Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA]; Liberal Progressive Front or LPF [Roger CHONGWE]; Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Levy MWANAWASA]; National Democratic Focus or NDF; Patriotic Front or PF [Michael SATA]; Party of Unity for Democracy and Development or PUDD [Dan PULE]; Reform Party [Nevers MUMBA]; United Democratic Alliance or UDA; United Liberal Party or ULP [Sakwiba SIKOTA]; United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA]; United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]; Zambia Democratic Congress or ZADECO [Langton SICHONE]; Zambian Republican Party or ZRP [Benjamin MWILA]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Inonge MBIKUSITA-LEWANIKA
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Carmen M. MARTINEZ
embassy: corner of Independence and United Nations Avenues, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (1) 250-955
FAX: [260] (1) 252-225
Flag descriptiongreen with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side), black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag
Economy - Zambia:
Economy overviewDespite progress in privatization and budgetary reform, Zambias economic growth in 2005-06 remained somewhat below the 6-7% per year needed to reduce poverty significantly. Privatization of government-owned copper mines relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly improved the chances for copper mining to return to profitability and spur economic growth. Copper output has increased steadily since 2004, due to higher copper prices and the opening of new mines. The maize harvest was good again in 2005, helping to boost GDP and agricultural exports. Cooperation continues with international bodies on programs to reduce poverty, including a new lending arrangement with the IMF in the second quarter of 2004. A tighter monetary policy will help cut inflation, but Zambia still has a serious problem with high public debt.
Gdp purchasing power parity $11.64 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $5.795 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate5.8% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,000 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 19.9%
industry: 28.9%
services: 51.2% (2006 est.)
Labor force4.903 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9%
Unemployment rate50% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line86% (1993)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.1%
highest 10%: 41% (1998)
Distribution of family income gini index52.6 (1998)
Inflation rate consumer prices 8.8% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 26.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $2.674 billion
expenditures: $2.99 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt65.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscorn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seed, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
Industriescopper mining and processing, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Industrial production growth rate10.1% (2006 est.)
Electricity production9.962 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption6.692 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports2.975 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity imports403 million kWh (2004)
Oil production140 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption13,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$165.4 million (2006 est.)
Exports$3.928 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiescopper/cobalt 64%, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports partnersSwitzerland 24.6%, South Africa 10.8%, Thailand 10.3%, China 9.9%, Italy 9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 5%, Tanzania 4.7% (2006)
Imports$3.092 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports partnersSouth Africa 50%, Zimbabwe 5.4%, UAE 4.7%, China 4.4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.05 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$4.397 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$640.6 million (2002)
Currency code Zambian kwacha (ZMK)
Exchange ratesZambian kwacha per US dollar - 3,601.5 (2006), 4,463.5 (2005), 4,778.9 (2004), 4,733.3 (2003), 4,398.6 (2002)
Communications - Zambia:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use94,700 (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular949,600 (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: facilities are aging but still among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa
domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation; Internet service is widely available; very small aperture terminal (VSAT) networks are operated by private firms
international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 19, FM 5, shortwave 4 (2001)
Television broadcast stations9 (2001)
Internet country
Internet hosts3,227 (2006)
Internet users334,800 (2005)
Transportation - Zambia:
Airports111 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 10
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 101
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 32 (2006)
Pipelinesoil 771 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 2,157 km
narrow gauge: 2,157 km 1.067-m gauge
note: includes 891 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 91,440 km
paved: 20,117 km
unpaved: 71,323 km (2001)
Waterways2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2005)
Ports and terminalsMpulungu
Military - Zambia:
Military branchesZambian National Defense Force (ZNDF): Army, Air Force, Police, National Service
Military service age and obligation18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 2,219,739
females age 18-49: 2,159,688 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,043,702
females age 18-49: 953,328 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 75,468 (Angola), 61,243 (Democratic Republic of the Congo), 5,669 (Rwanda) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp1.8% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalin 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; 42,250 Congolese refugees in Zambia are offered voluntary repatriation in November 2006, most of whom are expected to return in the next two years; Angolan refugees too have been repatriating but 26,450 still remain with 90,000 others from other neighboring states in 2006
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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