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Introduction - Yemen:
BackgroundNorth Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border.
Location - Yemen:
LocationMiddle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates15 00 N, 48 00 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Areatotal: 527,970 sq km
land: 527,970 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former Peoples Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)
Area comparativeslightly larger than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundariestotal: 1,746 km
border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km
Coastline1,906 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatemostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
Terrainnarrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Elevation extremeslowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shuayb 3,760 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west
Land usearable land: 2.91%
permanent crops: 0.25%
other: 96.84% (2005)
Irrigated land5,500 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardssandstorms and dust storms in summer
Environment current issuesvery limited natural fresh water resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notestrategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of worlds most active shipping lanes
People - Yemen:
Population22,230,531 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 46.3% (male 5,239,003/female 5,047,301)
15-64 years: 51.1% (male 5,781,491/female 5,585,152)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 281,121/female 296,463) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 16.7 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.7 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate3.461% (2007 est.)
Birth rate42.67 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate8.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.035 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.948 male(s)/female
total population: 1.034 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 57.88 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 62.48 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 62.52 years
male: 60.61 years
female: 64.54 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate6.49 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.1% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids12,000 (2001 est.)
Hiv aids deathsNA
Nationalitynoun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni
Ethnic groupspredominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans
ReligionsMuslim including Shafi (Sunni) and Zaydi (Shia), small numbers of Jewish, Christian, and Hindu
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 50.2%
male: 70.5%
female: 30% (2003 est.)
Government - Yemen:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman
former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and Peoples Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Sanaa
geographic coordinates: 15 21 N, 44 12 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions19 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Ad Dali, Al Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Marib, Sadah, Sana, Shabwah, Taizz
note: for electoral and administrative purposes, the capital city of Sanaa is treated as an additional governorate
Independence22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated Peoples Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note - previously North Yemen had become independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
National holidayUnification Day, 22 May (1990)
Constitution16 May 1991; amended 29 September 1994 and February 2001
Legal systembased on Islamic law, Turkish law, English common law, and local tribal customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 22 May 1990, the former president of North Yemen, assumed office upon the merger of North and South Yemen); Vice President Maj. Gen. Abd al-Rab Mansur al-HADI (since 3 October 1994)
head of government: Prime Minister Ali Muhammad MUJAWWAR (since 31 March 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Rashad Muhammad al-ALIMI
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term; election last held 20 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2013); vice president appointed by the president; prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Ali Abdallah SALIH elected president; percent of vote - Ali Abdallah SALIH 77.2%, Faysal BIN SHAMLAN 21.8%
Legislative brancha bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and a House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (next to be held in April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - GPC 228, Islah 47, YSP 7, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Bath Party 2, independents 14
Judicial branchSupreme Court
Political parties and leadersGeneral Peoples Congress or GPC [Abdul-Kader BAJAMMAL]; Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Shaykh Abdallah bin Husayn al-AHMAR]; Nasserite Unionist Party [Abdal Malik al-MAKHLAFI]; National Arab Socialist Bath Party [Dr. Qasim SALAM]; Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Ali Salih MUQBIL]; note - there are at least seven more active political parties
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationAFESD, AMF, CAEU, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Abd al-Wahab Abdallah al-HAJRI
chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Thomas C. KRAJESKI
embassy: Saawan Street, Sanaa
mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266
FAX: [967] (1) 303-182
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, and of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription), in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band
Economy - Yemen:
Economy overviewYemen, one of the poorest countries in the Arab world, reported average annual growth of 3.5% from 2000 through 2006. Its economic fortunes depend mostly on oil. Oil revenues probably increased in 2006 as a result of higher prices. Yemen was on an IMF-supported structural adjustment program designed to modernize and streamline the economy, which led to substantial foreign debt relief and restructuring. However, government dedication to the program waned in 2001 for political reasons. Yemen is struggling to control excessive spending and rampant corruption. Yemen is dependent on foreign aid to finance its budget deficits and development projects. In November, Yemen secured $4.7 billion in assistance from Arabian Gulf and Western donors.
Gdp purchasing power parity $20.63 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $15.07 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate2.6% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,000 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 12.5%
industry: 43.8%
services: 43.7% (2006 est.)
Labor force5.759 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationnote: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force
Unemployment rate35% (2003 est.)
Population below poverty line45.2% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 25.9% (2003)
Distribution of family income gini index33.4 (1998)
Inflation rate consumer prices 14.8% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 15.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $7.314 billion
expenditures: $6.984 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt30% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productsgrain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish
Industriescrude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; small aluminum products factory; cement; commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate3% (2003 est.)
Electricity production4.077 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity consumption3.792 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production387,500 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil consumption85,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exports320,600 bbl/day (2004)
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves3.72 billion bbl (2006 est.)
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves478.6 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance$1.69 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$8.214 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiescrude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish
Exports partnersChina 29.9%, India 16.6%, Thailand 15.9%, South Korea 6.4%, US 6.4%, Switzerland 5.2% (2006)
Imports$5.042 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesfood and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports partnersUAE 15.8%, China 12.3%, Saudi Arabia 7.5%, Switzerland 6.4%, Kuwait 5.6%, Malaysia 4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$6.735 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$5.469 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$2.3 billion (2003-07 disbursements)
Currency code Yemeni rial (YER)
Exchange ratesYemeni rials per US dollar - 197.18 (2006), 192.67 (2005), 184.78 (2004), 183.45 (2003), 175.63 (2002)
Communications - Yemen:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use968,400 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular2 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network
domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, and GSM cellular mobile telephone systems
international: country code - 967; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti
Radio broadcast stationsAM 6, FM 1, shortwave 2 (1998)
Television broadcast stations7 (plus several repeaters) (1997)
Internet country
Internet hosts171 (2006)
Internet users270,000 (2006)
Transportation - Yemen:
Airports46 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 16
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 30
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 4 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 71 km; liquid petroleum gas 22 km; oil 1,284 km (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 71,300 km
paved: 6,200 km
unpaved: 65,100 km (2005)
Merchant marinetotal: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 15,400 GRT/18,072 DWT
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
registered in other countries: 9 (Bolivia 1, Cambodia 3, North Korea 2, Panama 3) (2006)
Ports and terminalsAden, Nishtun
Military - Yemen:
Military branchesArmy (includes Republican Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Yemen Air Force (includes Air Defense Force) (2007)
Military service age and obligationvoluntary military service program authorized in 2001; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 4,058,223
females age 18-49: 3,868,112 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 2,790,705
females age 18-49: 2,792,406 (2005 est.)
Military notea Coast Guard was established in 2002
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 236,517
females age 18-49: 230,641 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp6.6% (2006)
Disputes internationalSaudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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