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Introduction - Uzbekistan:




Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of white gold (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

Location - Uzbekistan:


Central Asia, north of Afghanistan

Geographic coordinates

41 00 N, 64 00 E

Map references



total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km

Area comparative

slightly larger than California

Land boundaries

total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km


0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline

Maritime claims

none (doubly landlocked)


mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east


mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use

arable land: 10.51%
permanent crops: 0.76%
other: 88.73% (2005)

Irrigated land

42,810 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards


Environment current issues

shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

People - Uzbekistan:


27,780,059 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 32.4% (male 4,587,338/female 4,416,014)
15-64 years: 62.8% (male 8,636,226/female 8,817,633)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 543,417/female 779,431) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 22.9 years
male: 22.3 years
female: 23.5 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

1.732% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

26.46 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

7.73 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-1.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.039 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.979 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.697 male(s)/female
total population: 0.982 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 68.89 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 73.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 64.05 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 64.98 years
male: 61.57 years
female: 68.56 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.88 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

11,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 500 (2003 est.)


noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups

Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)


Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%


Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.3%
male: 99.6%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

Government - Uzbekistan:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: Ozbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type

republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch


name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 20 N, 69 18 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Fargona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 September (1991)


adopted 8 December 1992

Legal system

based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYAYEV (since 11 December 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held in 2007); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2%

Legislative branch

bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 26 December 2004 and 9 January 2005 (next to be held December 2009)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV

Judicial branch

Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)

Political parties and leaders

Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TASHMUHAMMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; Peoples Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Agrarian and Entrepreneurs Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Committee for the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora KHIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Abdulaziz KAMILOV
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Jon PURNELL
embassy: 3 Moyqorqon, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant

Economy - Uzbekistan:

Economy overview

Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the worlds second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer; it relies heavily on cotton production as the major source of export earnings. Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistans gas and oil industry may boost growth prospects. In November 2005, Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an alliance, which included provisions for economic and business cooperation. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan, especially in mining, telecom, and oil and gas. In December 2005, the Russians opened a Trade House to support and develop Russian-Uzbek business and economic ties. In 2006, Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC), both organizations dominated by Russia. Uzbek authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets. US firms have not made major investments in Uzbekistan in the last 5 years.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$55.75 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$10.83 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

7.3% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$2,000 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 31.1%
industry: 25.7%
services: 43.2% (2006 est.)

Labor force

14.44 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 44%
industry: 20%
services: 36% (1995)

Unemployment rate

3% officially by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed (2006)

Population below poverty line

33% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 22% (2000)

Distribution of family income gini index

26.8 (2000)

Inflation rate consumer prices

7.6% officially, but 38% based on analysis of consumer prices (2006)


revenues: $4.08 billion
expenditures: $4.24 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (FY07 est.)

Public debt

29.7% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock


textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, gold, petroleum, natural gas, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate

10.8% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

49 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity consumption

47 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Electricity exports

6.8 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity imports

10.5 billion kWh (2006 est.)

Oil production

142,000 bbl/day (2004)

Oil consumption

148,000 bbl/day (2004)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports


Oil proved reserves

594 million bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production

62.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas consumption

48.4 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas exports

12.5 billion cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas imports


Natural gas proved reserves

1.875 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

$1.41 billion (2006 est.)


$5.51 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles

Exports partners

Russia 23.9%, Poland 11.8%, China 10.5%, Turkey 7.5%, Kazakhstan 6%, Ukraine 4.7%, Bangladesh 4.4% (2006)


$3.99 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals

Imports partners

Russia 27.8%, South Korea 15.6%, China 10.4%, Kazakhstan 7.3%, Germany 7.1%, Ukraine 4.8%, Turkey 4.5% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.986 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$4.713 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$91.6 million from the US (2005)

Currency code

Uzbekistani soum (UZS)

Exchange rates

Uzbekistani soum per US dollar - 1,219.8 (2006), 1,020 (2005), 971.265 (2004), 771.029 (2003), 423.832 (2002)

Communications - Uzbekistan:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

1.793 million (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

1.1 million (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the main line telecommunications system is dilapidated; the state-owned telecom company, Uzbektelecom, is using a US$110 million loan from the Japanese government to improve main line services; mobile services are growing swiftly, with the subscriber base doubling in 2005 to 1.1 million; there are 6 main cellular providers currently in operation
international: country code - 998; linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications (2006)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 4, FM 6, shortwave 3 (2006)

Television broadcast stations

8 (includes 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent; approximately 20 stations in regional capitals) (2006)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

9,058 (2006)

Internet users

1.7 million (2006)

Transportation - Uzbekistan:


61 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 34
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 5 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 25 (2006)


gas 9,594 km; oil 868 km (2006)


total: 3,950 km
broad gauge: 3,950 km 1.520-m gauge (620 km electrified) (2006)


total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km
unpaved: 10,363 km (1999)


1,100 km (2006)

Ports and terminals

Termiz (Amu Darya)

Military - Uzbekistan:

Military branches

Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months (2004)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 6,340,220
females age 18-49: 6,432,072 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 4,609,621
females age 18-49: 5,383,233 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 324,722
females age 18-49: 317,062 (2005 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 39,202 (Tajikistan)
IDPs: 3,400 (forced population transfers by government from villages near Tajikistan border) (2006)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

2% (2005 est.)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Uzbekistan is a source and, to a lesser extent, a transit country for women trafficked to Asia and the Middle East for the purpose of sexual exploitation; women from other Central Asian countries and China are trafficked through Uzbekistan; men are trafficked for purposes of forced labor in the construction and agricultural industries to Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan; men and women are also trafficked within the country
tier rating: Tier 3 - Uzbekistan is placed on Tier 3 because it failed to fulfill commitments by the country to take additional steps during 2005, including the adoption of comprehensive anti-trafficking legislation, criminal code amendments to raise trafficking penalties, support to the countrys first trafficking shelter, and approval of a national action plan

Disputes international

prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan creates water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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