Uganda

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Introduction - Uganda:
CountryUganda
BackgroundThe colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed at least another 100,000 lives. The rule of Yoweri MUSEVENI since 1986 has brought relative stability and economic growth to Uganda. During the 1990s, the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections.
Location - Uganda:
LocationEastern Africa, west of Kenya
Geographic coordinates1 00 N, 32 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 236,040 sq km
land: 199,710 sq km
water: 36,330 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatetropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrainmostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation extremeslowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Natural resourcescopper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land
Land usearable land: 21.57%
permanent crops: 8.92%
other: 69.51% (2005)
Irrigated land90 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsNA
Environment current issuesdraining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; widespread poaching
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography notelandlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
People - Uganda:
Population30,262,610
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 50.2% (male 7,646,619/female 7,538,137)
15-64 years: 47.6% (male 7,231,196/female 7,185,058)
65 years and over: 2.2% (male 281,317/female 380,283) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 14.9 years
male: 14.8 years
female: 15 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate3.572% (2007 est.)
Birth rate48.12 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate12.64 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.014 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.006 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 1.004 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 67.22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 70.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 63.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 51.75 years
male: 50.78 years
female: 52.73 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate6.84 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate4.1% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids530,000 (2001 est.)
Hiv aids deaths78,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2007)
Ethnic groupsBaganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6% (2002 census)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9% (2002 census)
LanguagesEnglish (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 66.8%
male: 76.8%
female: 57.7% (2002 census)
Government - Uganda:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Kampala
geographic coordinates: 0 19 N, 32 25 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions56 districts; Adjumani, Apac, Arua, Bugiri, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kaberamaido, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kayunga, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Kyenjojo, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mayuge, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakapiripirit, Nakasongola, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pader, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Sironko, Soroti, Tororo, Wakiso, Yumbe
note: as of a July 2005, 13 new districts were reportedly added bringing the total up to 69; the new districts are Amolatar, Amuria, Budaka, Butaleja, Ibanda, Kaabong, Kabingo, Kaliro, Kiruhura, Koboko, Manafwa, Mityana, Nakaseke; a total of ten more districts are in the process of being added
Independence9 October 1962 (from UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 9 October (1962)
Constitution8 October 1995; in 2005 the constitution was amended removing presidential term limits and legalizing a multiparty political system
Legal systemin 1995, the government restored the legal system to one based on English common law and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 26 January 1986); Prime Minister Apollo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 23 February 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 59.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 37.4%, other 3.3%
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly (332 seats; 215 members elected by popular vote, 104 nominated by legally established special interest groups [women 79, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], 13 ex officio members; to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 23 February 2006 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NRM 191, FDC 37, UPC 9, DP 8, CP 1, JEEMA 1, independents 36, other 49
Judicial branchCourt of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leadersConservative Party or CP [Ken LUKYAMUZI]; Democratic Party or DP [Kizito SSEBAANA]; Forum for Democratic Change or FDC [Kizza BESIGYE]; Justice Forum or JEEMA [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; National Democrats Forum [Chapaa KARUHANGA]; National Resistance Movement or NRM [Yoweri MUSEVENI]; Ugandan Peoples Congress or UPC [Miria OBOTE]
note: a national referendum in July 2005 opened the way for Ugandas transition to a multi-party political system
Political pressure groups and leadersPopular Resistance Against a Life President or PRALP
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Perezi Karukubiro KAMUNANWIRE
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Steven BROWNING
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Road, Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (41) 234-142
FAX: [256] (41) 258-451
Flag descriptionsix equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side
Economy - Uganda:
Economy overviewUganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. During 1990-2001, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. In 2000, Uganda qualified for enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original HIPC debt relief added up to about $2 billion. Growth for 2001-02 was solid, despite continued decline in the price of coffee, Ugandas principal export. Growth in 2003-06 reflected an upturn in Ugandas export markets.
Gdp purchasing power parity $52.93 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $8.526 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate5.3% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,900 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 29.4%
industry: 22.1%
services: 48.5% (2006 est.)
Labor force13.76 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 82%
industry: 5%
services: 13% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
Population below poverty line35% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 21% (2000)
Distribution of family income gini index43 (1999)
Inflation rate consumer prices 6% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 23.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $1.943 billion
expenditures: $1.994 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt29.3% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscoffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses, cut flowers; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry
Industriessugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles; cement, steel production
Industrial production growth rate5.2% (2006 est.)
Electricity production1.894 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption1.596 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports165 million kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption10,890 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$423 million (2006 est.)
Exports$961.7 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiescoffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold
Exports partnersBelgium 9.8%, Netherlands 9.2%, France 7.8%, Germany 7.5%, Rwanda 5.5%, Sudan 4.7% (2006)
Imports$1.945 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiescapital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports partnersKenya 34.6%, UAE 8.7%, China 7.2%, India 5.6%, South Africa 5.5%, Japan 4.3% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.4 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$1.456 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$959 million (2003)
Currency code Ugandan shilling (UGX)
Exchange ratesUgandan shillings per US dollar - 1,834.9 (2006), 1,780.7 (2005), 1,810.3 (2004), 1,963.7 (2003), 1,797.6 (2002)
Communications - Uganda:
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
Telephones main lines in use108,100 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular2.009 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: seriously inadequate; 2 cellular systems have been introduced, but a sharp increase in the number of main lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems for short-range traffic
international: country code - 256; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania
Radio broadcast stationsAM 7, FM 33, shortwave 2 (2001)
Television broadcast stations8 (plus 1 repeater) (2001)
Internet country code.ug
Internet hosts1,365 (2006)
Internet users750,000 (2006)
Transportation - Uganda:
Airports31 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 5
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 26
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 8 (2006)
Railwaystotal: 1,244 km
narrow gauge: 1,244 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 70,746 km
paved: 16,272 km
unpaved: 54,474 km (2003)
Waterwayson Lake Victoria, 200 km on Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, and parts of Albert Nile (2005)
Ports and terminalsEntebbe, Jinja, Port Bell
Military - Uganda:
Military branchesUganda Peoples Defense Force (UPDF): Army (includes Marine Unit), Air Force (2007)
Military service age and obligation18-26 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military duty; 18-30 years of age for professionals; 9-year service obligation; the government has stated that recruitment below 18 years of age could occur with proper consent and that no person under the apparent age of 13 years shall be enrolled in the armed forces (2007)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 5,012,620
females age 18-49: 4,855,858 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 2,889,808
females age 18-49: 2,780,135 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp2.2% (2006)
Disputes internationalUganda is subject to armed fighting among hostile ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs, militias, and various government forces that extend across its borders; Uganda hosts 209,860 Sudanese, 27,560 Congolese, and 19,710 Rwandan refugees, while Ugandan refugees as well as members of the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) seek shelter in southern Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congos Garamba National Park; LRA forces have also attacked Kenyan villages across the border
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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