Turkey

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Introduction - Turkey:

Country

Turkey

Background

Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or Father of the Turks. Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a post-modern coup - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) - now known as the Peoples Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish militarys attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the groups leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.

Location - Turkey:

Location

Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

Geographic coordinates

39 00 N, 35 00 E

Map references

Middle East

Area

total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km

Area comparative

slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries

total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km

Coastline

7,200 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR

Climate

temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

Terrain

high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

Natural resources

coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower

Land use

arable land: 29.81%
permanent crops: 3.39%
other: 66.8% (2005)

Irrigated land

52,150 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

Environment current issues

water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

Geography note

strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noahs Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country

People - Turkey:

Population

71,158,647 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 24.9% (male 9,034,731/female 8,703,624)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 24,627,270/female 23,857,507)
65 years and over: 6.9% (male 2,253,383/female 2,682,132) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 28.6 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 28.8 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

1.04% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

16.4 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

6 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.032 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.019 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 38.33 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 41.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.88 years
male: 70.43 years
female: 75.46 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.89 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

less than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

NA

Hiv aids deaths

NA

Nationality

noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish

Ethnic groups

Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)

Religions

Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)

Languages

Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian
note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the European part of Turkey

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.4%
male: 95.3%
female: 79.6% (2004 est.)

Government - Turkey:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye

Government type

republican parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

81 provinces (iller, singular - il); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel (Mersin), Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak

Independence

29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday

Republic Day, 29 October (1923)

Constitution

7 November 1982

Legal system

civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Hayati YAZICI (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Nazim EKREN (since 29 August 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a single seven-year term; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: Abdullah GUL received 339 votes in the third round of voting on 28 August 2007, after failing to garner the two thirds vote required by law in the first two rounds
note: president-elect must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot

Legislative branch

unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 3 November 2002 (next to be held on 4 November 2007); note - a special rerun of the General Election in the province of Siirt on 9 March 2003 resulted in the election of Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN to a seat in parliament, a prerequisite for his becoming prime minister on 14 March 2003
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 34.3%, CHP 19.4%, DYP 9.6%, MHP 8.3%, GP 7.3%, Anavatan 5.1%, DSP 1.1%, and other 14.9%; seats by party - AKP 363, CHP 178, independents 9; note - parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats; seats by party as of 1 December 2006 - AKP 354, CHP 154, Anavatan 21, DYP 4, SHP 1, HYP 1, GP 1, independents 9, vacant 5

Judicial branch

Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court

Political parties and leaders

Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party) or Anavatan [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic Society Party or DTP [Ahmet TURK]; Felicity Party or SP [Recai KUTAN] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI] (sometimes translated as Nationalist Movement Party); Peoples Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasar Nuri OZTURK]; Republican Peoples Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic Peoples Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party or DYP [Mehmet AGAR] (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party); Young Party or GP [Cem Cengiz UZAN]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turkey had on 1 December 2004

Political pressure groups and leaders

Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Ismail Hakki TOMBUL]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists and Businessmens Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists and Businessmens Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]

International organization participation

AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Nabi SENSOY
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Ross WILSON
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir

Flag description

red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening

Economy - Turkey:

Economy overview

Turkeys dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for more than 35% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkeys export mix. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. The economy is turning around with the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 GDP growth reached 9%, followed by roughly 5% annual growth from 2005-06. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low but climbed back to 9.8% in 2006. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-06, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high debt. Prior to 2005, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkey averaged less than $1 billion annually, but further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost FDI. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$635.6 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$358.5 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

5.3% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$9,000 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 11.2%
industry: 29.4%
services: 59.4% (2006 est.)

Labor force

24.8 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 35.9%
industry: 22.8%
services: 41.2% (3rd quarter, 2004)

Unemployment rate

10.2% plus underemployment of 4% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

20% (2002)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 30.7% (2000)

Distribution of family income gini index

42 (2003)

Inflation rate consumer prices

9.8% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

20.1% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $112.3 billion
expenditures: $121.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

64.7% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock

Industries

textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Industrial production growth rate

5.5% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

143.3 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

140.3 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity exports

1.1 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

500 million kWh (2004)

Oil production

50,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

715,100 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil exports

112,600 bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports

724,400 bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves

300 million bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production

688 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

22.6 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

21.73 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

-$25.99 billion (2006 est.)

Exports

$85.21 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment

Exports partners

Germany 11.4%, UK 8%, Italy 7.9%, US 5.9%, France 5.4%, Spain 4.3% (2006)

Imports

$120.9 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment

Imports partners

Russia 12.7%, Germany 10.6%, China 7%, Italy 6.3%, France 4.8%, US 4.3%, Iran 4.1% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$53.42 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$193.6 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

ODA, $635.8 million (2002)

Currency code

Turkish lira (TRY); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005

Exchange rates

Turkish liras per US dollar - 1.4286 (2006), 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004), 1.5009 (2003), 1.5072 (2002)
note: on 1 January 2005 the old Turkish lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish lira (TRY) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish lira

Communications - Turkey:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

18.978 million (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

43.609 million (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially with cellular telephones
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by 3 submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, linking Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code

.tr

Internet hosts

1.313 million (2006)

Internet users

12.284 million (2006)

Transportation - Turkey:

Airports

117 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 89
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 18
under 914 m: 4 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 28
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 17 (2006)

Heliports

18 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 4,621 km; oil 3,543 km (2006)

Railways

total: 8,697 km
standard gauge: 8,697 km 1.435-m gauge (1,920 km electrified) (2006)

Roadways

total: 426,906 km
paved: 177,550 km (includes 1,892 km of expressways)
unpaved: 249,356 km (2004)

Waterways

1,200 km (2005)

Merchant marine

total: 545 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,772,864 GRT/7,313,070 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 109, cargo 239, chemical tanker 50, container 24, liquefied gas 6, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 50, petroleum tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 24, specialized tanker 2
foreign-owned: 7 (Cyprus 2, Germany 1, Italy 3, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 411 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 8, Bahamas 8, Belize 11, Cambodia 26, Comoros 11, Dominica 3, Georgia 30, Isle of Man 3, North Korea 4, Liberia 1, Libya 2, Malta 123, Marshall Islands 20, Netherlands Antilles 9, Panama 42, Russia 63, Saint Kitts and Nevis 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 25, Slovakia 8, Tuvalu 2, UK 2, unknown 3) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Aliaga, Ambarli, Eregli, Haydarpasa, Istanbul, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Toros

Military - Turkey:

Military branches

Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri, TDK; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri, THK) (2006)

Military service age and obligation

20 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service

males age 20-49: 16,756,323
females age 20-49: 16,051,706 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 20-49: 13,905,901
females age 20-49: 13,335,812 (2005 est.)

Military note

in the early 1990s, the Turkish Land Force was a large but badly equipped infantry force; there were 14 infantry divisions, but only one was mechanized, and out of 16 infantry brigades, only six were mechanized; a subsequent overhaul has produced highly mobile forces with greatly enhanced firepower in accordance with NATOs new strategic concept (2005)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 679,734
females age 20-49: 659,090 (2005 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 1-1.2 million (fighting 1984-99 between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs in southeastern provinces) (2006)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

5.3% (2005 est.)

Disputes international

complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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