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Introduction - Togo:
BackgroundFrench Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, continued to rule into the 21st century. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government continued to be dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967. Togo has come under fire from international organizations for human rights abuses and is plagued by political unrest. While most bilateral and multilateral aid to Togo remains frozen, the EU initiated a partial resumption of cooperation and development aid to Togo in late 2004 based upon commitments by Togo to expand opportunities for political opposition and liberalize portions of the economy. Upon his death in February 2005, President EYADEMA was succeeded by his son Faure GNASSINGBE. The succession, supported by the military and in contravention of the nations constitution, was challenged by popular protest and a threat of sanctions from regional leaders. GNASSINGBE succumbed to pressure and in April 2005 held elections that legitimized his succession. Legislative elections are scheduled for June 2007.
Location - Togo:
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 56,785 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundariestotal: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline56 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 30 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terraingently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremeslowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resourcesphosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land usearable land: 44.2%
permanent crops: 2.11%
other: 53.69% (2005)
Irrigated land70 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardshot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment current issuesdeforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notethe countrys length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
People - Togo:
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42% (male 1,201,840/female 1,193,416)
15-64 years: 55.3% (male 1,535,855/female 1,617,631)
65 years and over: 2.7% (male 61,658/female 91,179) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.4 years
male: 18 years
female: 18.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate2.718% (2007 est.)
Birth rate36.83 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate9.65 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.007 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.949 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.676 male(s)/female
total population: 0.965 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 59.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 66.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 57.86 years
male: 55.81 years
female: 59.96 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate4.9 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate4.1% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids110,000 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths10,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2007)
Ethnic groupsAfrican (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
ReligionsChristian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
LanguagesFrench (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.9%
male: 75.4%
female: 46.9% (2003 est.)
Government - Togo:
Country nameconventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local long form: Republique togolaise
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
Government typerepublic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capitalname: Lome
geographic coordinates: 6 08 N, 1 13 E
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Independence27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holidayIndependence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitutionmultiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992, adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal systemFrench-based court system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
SuffrageNA years of age; universal (adult)
Executive branchchief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 6 February 2005); note - Gnassingbe EYADEMA died on 5 February 2005 and was succeeded by his son, Faure GNASSINGBE; popular elections in April 2005 validated the succession
head of government: Prime Minister Yawovi AGBOYIBO (since 16 September 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held by 2010); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Faure GNASSINGBE elected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.2%, Emmanuel Akitani BOB 38.3%, Nicolas LAWSON 1%, Harry OLYMPIO 0.5%
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 27 October 2002 (next to be held on 5 August 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - RPT 72, RSDD 3, UDPS 2, Juvento 2, MOCEP 1, independents 1
Judicial branchCourt of Appeal or Cour dAppel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leadersAction Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA; Democratic Party for Renewal or PDR; Juvento [Monsilia DJATO]; Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP; Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP; Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [Faure GNASSINGBE]; Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR; Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU]; Union of Forces for a Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador David B. DUNN
embassy: Angle Rue Kouenou and Rue 15 Beniglato, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 221 29 91 through 221 29 94
FAX: [228] 221 79 52
Flag descriptionfive equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Economy - Togo:
Economy overviewThis small, sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is the worlds fourth-largest producer of phosphate. The governments decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Togo is working with donors to write a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) that could eventually lead to a debt reduction plan.
Gdp purchasing power parity $9.271 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $2.089 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate2% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,700 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 39.5%
industry: 20.4%
services: 40.1% (2003 est.)
Labor force1.302 million (1998)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 65%
industry: 5%
services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rateNA%
Population below poverty line32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate consumer prices 2.8% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 22.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $260.2 million
expenditures: $311 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscoffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Industriesphosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rateNA%
Electricity production286.2 million kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption929.2 million kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports663 million kWh; note - electricity supplied by Ghana (2004)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption14,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$261.9 million (2006 est.)
Exports$868.4 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesreexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports partnersGhana 16.7%, Burkina Faso 14.4%, Benin 9.1%, Belgium 6.1%, Mali 5.8%, Germany 5.4%, India 4.6%, Netherlands 4.6% (2006)
Imports$1.208 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports partnersChina 30.9%, UK 11.3%, France 9.2%, Netherlands 6.1%, Belgium 6%, US 4.8%, Estonia 4.3%, Cote dIvoire 4.1% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$333.9 million (2006 est.)
Debt external$2 billion (2005)
Economic aid recipientODA, $80 million (2000 est.)
Currency code Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)
Communications - Togo:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use82,100 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular708,000 (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system
international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie
Radio broadcast stationsAM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations3 (plus 2 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country
Internet hosts520 (2006)
Internet users320,000 (2006)
Transportation - Togo:
Airports9 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Railwaystotal: 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (1999)
Waterways50 km (seasonally on Mono River depending on rainfall) (2005)
Merchant marinetotal: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,918 GRT/3,852 DWT
by type: cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1 (2006)
Ports and terminalsKpeme, Lome
Military - Togo:
Military branchesTogolese Armed Forces (FAT): Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie (2005)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,102,661
females age 18-49: 1,124,463 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 696,933
females age 18-49: 707,821 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 8,000 (Ghana)
IDPs: 1,500 (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp1.6% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalin 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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