Tajikistan

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Introduction - Tajikistan:
CountryTajikistan
BackgroundThe Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russias hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and it is now in the process of strengthening its democracy and transitioning to a free market economy after its 1992-97 civil war. There have been no major security incidents in recent years, although the country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATOs Partnership for Peace.
Location - Tajikistan:
LocationCentral Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 71 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Areatotal: 143,100 sq km
land: 142,700 sq km
water: 400 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundariestotal: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatemidlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
TerrainPamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremeslowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Ismoili Somoni 7,495 m
Natural resourceshydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land usearable land: 6.52%
permanent crops: 0.89%
other: 92.59% (2005)
Irrigated land7,220 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsearthquakes and floods
Environment current issuesinadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelandlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
People - Tajikistan:
Population7,076,598 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 35% (male 1,261,247/female 1,218,686)
15-64 years: 61.2% (male 2,145,300/female 2,184,519)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 113,186/female 153,660) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 21.3 years
male: 20.8 years
female: 21.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.895% (2007 est.)
Birth rate27.33 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate7.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-1.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.035 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.982 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.737 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 43.64 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 48.73 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 64.61 years
male: 61.6 years
female: 67.78 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate3.09 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rateless than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aidsless than 200 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deathsless than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groupsTajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)
ReligionsSunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
LanguagesTajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2000 census)
Government - Tajikistan:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 35 N, 68 48 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat) and 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor); Viloyati Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Viloyati Mukhtori Kuhistoni Badakhshon* [Gorno-Badakhshan] (Khorugh), Viloyati Sughd (Khujand)
note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution6 November 1994
Legal systembased on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)
head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 January 1999)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Emomali RAHMONOV reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMONOV 79.3%, Olimzon BOBOYEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
Legislative branchbicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milliy (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; to serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 25 March 2005 for the National Assembly (next to be held in February 2010) and 27 February and 13 March 2005 for the Assembly of Representatives (next to be held in February 2010)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDPT 29, CPT 2, independents 3; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 74.9%, CPT 13.6%, Islamic Revival Party 8.9%, other 2.5%; seats by party - PDPT 51, CPT 5, Islamic Revival Party 2, independents 5
Judicial branchSupreme Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leadersAgrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir KARAKULOV]; Democratic Party or DPT [Mahmadruzi ISKANDAROV (imprisoned October 2005); Rahmatullo VALIYEV, deputy]; Islamic Revival Party [Muhiddin KABIRI]; Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimzon BOBOYEV]; Peoples Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMONOV]; Social Democratic Party or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Abdualim GHAFFOROV]; Tajik Communist Party or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV]
Political pressure groups and leadersunregistered political parties: Agrarian Party [Hikmatullo NASREDDINOV]; Party of Justice [Abdurahim KARIMOV]; Peoples Unity Party [Abdumalik ABDULLOJONOV]; Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Socialist Party or SPT [Mirhuseyn NAZRIYEV]; note - this is a SPT that was disbanded, another pro-government SPT (listed above under political parties) replaced it; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
International organization participationAsDB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Abdujabbor SHIRINOV
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Tracey Ann JACOBSON
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734003
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
Flag descriptionthree horizontal stripes of red (top), a wider stripe of white, and green; a gold crown surmounted by seven gold, five-pointed stars is located in the center of the white stripe
Economy - Tajikistan:
Economy overviewTajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Only 7% of the land area is arable; cotton is the most important crop. Mineral resources, varied but limited in amount, include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. While Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997, nearly two-thirds of the population continues to live in abject poverty. Economic growth reached 10.6% in 2004 but dropped to 8% in 2005 and to 7% in 2006. Tajikistans economic situation, however, remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, weak governance, widespread unemployment, and the external debt burden. Continued privatization of medium and large state-owned enterprises could increase productivity. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002 including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistans $300 million debt. Tajikistan ranks third in the world in terms of water resources per head. A proposed investment to finish the hydropower dams Rogun and Sangtuda I and II would substantially add to electricity production, which could be exported for profit. If finished, Rogun will be the worlds tallest dam. In 2006, Tajikistan was the recipient of substantial infrastructure development credits from the Shanghai Cooperation Organization to improve its roads and electricity transmission network. To help increase north-south trade, the US is constructing a $36 million bridge linking Tajikistan and Afghanistan.
Gdp purchasing power parity $9.521 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $2.066 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate7% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,300 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 22.7%
industry: 28.5%
services: 48.8% (2006 est.)
Labor force3.7 million (2003)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 67.2%
industry: 7.5%
services: 25.3% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate12% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line64% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 25.2% (1998)
Distribution of family income gini index34.7 (1998)
Inflation rate consumer prices 7.5% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 19.9% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $527.5 million
expenditures: $622 million; including capital expenditures of $86 million (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industriesaluminum, zinc, lead; chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil, metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Industrial production growth rate8.2% (2002 est.)
Electricity production16.5 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption15.7 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports4.459 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity imports4.81 billion kWh (2004)
Oil production252.8 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption28,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves12 million bbl
Natural gas production39 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption1.389 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports1.35 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$73.95 million (2006 est.)
Exports$1.16 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesaluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports partnersNorway 13.9%, Russia 13%, Turkey 12.2%, Uzbekistan 9.4%, US 6.4%, Italy 5.3%, Iran 5.2%, Greece 4.2% (2006)
Imports$1.513 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditieselectricity, petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports partnersRussia 21.2%, China 17.2%, Kazakhstan 10.6%, Uzbekistan 9.6%, Azerbaijan 7.3%, Ukraine 5.2%, Turkey 4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$209.2 million (2006 est.)
Debt external$829 million (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$67 million from US (2005)
Currency code somoni (TJS)
Exchange ratesTajikistani somoni per US dollar - 3.3 (2006), 3.1166 (2005), 2.9705 (2004), 3.0614 (2003), 2.7641 (2002)
Communications - Tajikistan:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use280,200 (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular265,000 (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: poorly developed and not well maintained; many towns are not linked to the national network
domestic: the domestic telecommunications network has historically been under funded and poorly maintained; main line availability has not changed significantly since 1998; cellular telephony is rare and coverage remains limited
international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 1 Orbita and 2 Intelsat (2006)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 8, FM 10, shortwave 2 (2002)
Television broadcast stations6 (2006)
Internet country code.tj
Internet hosts98 (2006)
Internet users19,500 (2005)
Transportation - Tajikistan:
Airports40 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 22 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 549 km; oil 38 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 482 km
broad gauge: 482 km 1.520-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 27,767 km (2000)
Waterways200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2006)
Military - Tajikistan:
Military branchesGround Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces, National Guard (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,556,415
females age 18-49: 1,568,780 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,244,941
females age 18-49: 1,297,891 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 87,846
females age 18-49: 85,869 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp3.9% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalin 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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