Switzerland

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Introduction - Switzerland:
Location - Switzerland:

Location

Central Europe, east of France, north of Italy

Geographic coordinates

47 00 N, 8 00 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 41,290 sq km
land: 39,770 sq km
water: 1,520 sq km

Area comparative

slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries

total: 1,852 km
border countries: Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

Terrain

mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Lake Maggiore 195 m
highest point: Dufourspitze 4,634 m

Natural resources

hydropower potential, timber, salt

Land use

arable land: 9.91%
permanent crops: 0.58%
other: 89.51% (2005)

Irrigated land

250 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

avalanches, landslides, flash floods

Environment current issues

air pollution from vehicle emissions and open-air burning; acid rain; water pollution from increased use of agricultural fertilizers; loss of biodiversity

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography note

landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe; along with southeastern France, northern Italy, and southwestern Austria, has the highest elevations in the Alps

People - Switzerland:
Government - Switzerland:
Economy - Switzerland:
Communications - Switzerland:
Transportation - Switzerland:
Military - Switzerland:
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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An Intelligence Quotient or IQ is a score derived from one of several different standardized tests attempting to measure intelligence. Although the term "IQ" is still in common use, the scoring of modern IQ tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is now based on a projection of the subject's measured rank on the Gaussian bell curve with a center value (average IQ) of 100, and a standard deviation of 15, although different tests may have different standard deviations. The average IQ scores for many populations have been rising at an average rate of three points per decade since the early 20th century with most of the increase in the lower half of the IQ range: a phenomenon called the Flynn effect. It is disputed whether these changes in scores reflect real changes in intellectual abilities, or merely methodological problems with past or present testing. (Wikipedie)

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Switzerland



Photo: Switzerland
Switzerland



Photo: Switzerland
Switzerland



Photo: Switzerland
Switzerland



Photo: Switzerland
Switzerland



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