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Introduction - Sweden:




A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war in almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both World Wars. Swedens long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 by the global economic downturn, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.

Location - Sweden:


Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway

Geographic coordinates

62 00 N, 15 00 E

Map references



total: 449,964 sq km
land: 410,934 sq km
water: 39,030 sq km

Area comparative

slightly larger than California

Land boundaries

total: 2,233 km
border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km


3,218 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north


mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Elevation extremes

lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.41 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m

Natural resources

iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower

Land use

arable land: 5.93%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 94.06% (2005)

Irrigated land

1,150 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic

Environment current issues

acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

People - Sweden:


9,031,088 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.4% (male 759,488/female 717,812)
15-64 years: 65.7% (male 3,007,899/female 2,926,220)
65 years and over: 17.9% (male 707,687/female 911,982) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 41.1 years
male: 40 years
female: 42.2 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.159% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

10.2 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

10.27 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

1.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.058 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.028 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.776 male(s)/female
total population: 0.982 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 2.76 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 80.63 years
male: 78.39 years
female: 83 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.66 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

3,600 (2001 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 100 (2003 est.)


noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish

Ethnic groups

indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks


Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%


Swedish, small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

Government - Sweden:

Country name

conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige

Government type

constitutional monarchy


name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarnas, Gavleborgs, Gotlands, Hallands, Jamtlands, Jonkopings, Kalmar, Kronobergs, Norrbottens, Orebro, Ostergotlands, Skane, Sodermanlands, Stockholms, Uppsala, Varmlands, Vasterbottens, Vasternorrlands, Vastmanlands, Vastra Gotalands


6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)

National holiday

Swedish Flag Day, 6 June (1916); National Day, 6 June (1983)


1 January 1975

Legal system

civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)
head of government: Prime Minister Fredrik REINFELDT (since 5 October 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by the parliament; election last held on 17 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2010)
election results: Fredrik REINFELDT elected prime minister with 175 out of 349 votes

Legislative branch

unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 17 September 2006 (next to be held in September 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - Social Democrats 37.2%, Moderates 27.8%, Center Party 8.3%, Peoples Party 8.0%, Christian Democrats 6.9%, Left Party 6.3%, Greens 5.4%; seats by party - Social Democrats 130, Moderates 97, Center Party 29, Peoples Party 28, Christian Democrats 24, Left Party 22, Greens 19

Judicial branch

Supreme Court or Hogsta Domstolen (judges are appointed by the prime minister and the cabinet)

Political parties and leaders

Center Party [Maud OLOFSSON]; Christian Democratic Party [Goran HAGGLUND]; Environment Party the Greens [no formal leader but party spokespersons are Maria WETTERSTRAND and Peter ERIKSSON]; Left Party or V (formerly Communist) [Lars OHLY]; Moderate Party (conservative) [Fredrik REINFELDT]; Peoples Party [Lars LEIJONBORG]; Social Democratic Party [Mona SAHLIN]

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Gunnar LUND
chancery: 902 30th Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael M. WOOD
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm
mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64

Flag description

blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy - Sweden:

Economy overview

Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole of the 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for only 1% of GDP and 2% of employment. The governments commitment to fiscal discipline resulted in a substantial budgetary surplus in 2001, which was cut by more than half in 2002 due to the global economic slowdown, declining revenue, and increased spending. The Swedish central bank (the Riksbank) focuses on price stability with its inflation target of 2%. Growth remained sluggish in 2003 but picked up during 2004-06. Presumably because of generous sick-leave benefits, Swedish workers report in sick more often than other Europeans. In September 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system concerned about the impact on the economy and sovereignty.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$290.6 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$373.2 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

4.7% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$32,200 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 28.1%
services: 70.9% (2006 est.)

Labor force

4.59 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 2%
industry: 24%
services: 74% (2000 est.)

Unemployment rate

5.6% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 20.1% (1992)

Distribution of family income gini index

25 (2000)

Inflation rate consumer prices

1.4% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

17.6% of GDP (2006 est.)


revenues: $222 billion
expenditures: $210.5 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

46.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk


iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate

4.3% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

150.5 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

137.8 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

17.8 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

15.6 billion kWh (2004)

Oil production

3,208 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil consumption

362,400 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

231,100 bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports

580,600 bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

979 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

979 million cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance

$28.61 billion (2006 est.)


$173.9 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals

Exports partners

Germany 9.7%, US 9.2%, Norway 9.1%, UK 7.1%, Denmark 6.8%, Finland 5.9%, France 4.9%, Netherlands 4.7%, Belgium 4.5% (2006)


$151.8 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing

Imports partners

Germany 17.2%, Denmark 9%, Norway 8.1%, UK 5.9%, Netherlands 5.7%, Finland 5.6%, France 4.5%, Belgium 4% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$22.26 billion (August 2006 est.)

Economic aid donor

ODA, $1.7 billion (1997)

Debt external

$598.2 billion (30 June 2006)

Currency code

Swedish krona (SEK)

Exchange rates

Swedish kronor per US dollar - 7.3731 (2006), 7.4731 (2005), 7.3489 (2004), 8.0863 (2003), 9.7371 (2002)

Communications - Sweden:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

6.379 million (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

9.087 million (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: excellent domestic and international facilities; automatic system
domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels
international: country code - 46; 5 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 265, shortwave 1 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

169 (plus 1,299 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

2.958 million (2006)

Internet users

6.981 million (2006)

Transportation - Sweden:


255 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 155
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 80
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 36 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 100
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 91 (2006)


2 (2006)


gas 798 km (2006)


total: 11,528 km
standard gauge: 11,528 km 1.435-m gauge (7,527 km electrified) (2006)


total: 424,947 km
paved: 129,651 km (includes 1,591 km of expressways)
unpaved: 295,296 km (2004)


2,052 km (2005)

Merchant marine

total: 198 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,703,834 GRT/2,382,754 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 28, chemical tanker 47, container 5, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 36, petroleum tanker 15, roll on/roll off 31, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 21
foreign-owned: 37 (Belgium 2, Denmark 4, Finland 11, Germany 3, Italy 7, Japan 2, Norway 7, US 1)
registered in other countries: 161 (Bahamas 6, Bermuda 14, Cayman Islands 9, Cook Islands 3, Cyprus 3, Denmark 1, France 2, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 9, Gibraltar 5, Isle of Man 1, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Netherlands 26, Netherlands Antilles 5, Norway 28, Panama 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Singapore 12, UK 15, US 5) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Oxelosund, Stenungsund, Stockholm, Trelleborg

Military - Sweden:

Military branches

Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2006)

Military service age and obligation

19 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation: 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47 (2006)

Manpower available for military service

males age 19-49: 1,838,427
females age 19-49: 1,774,659 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 19-49: 1,493,668
females age 19-49: 1,441,257 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 58,724
females age 19-49: 55,954 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

1.5% (2005 est.)

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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