Slovenia

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Introduction - Slovenia:

Country

Slovenia

Background

The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latters dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscows rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenias transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

Location - Slovenia:

Location

Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia

Geographic coordinates

46 07 N, 14 49 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries

total: 1,382 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 280 km

Coastline

46.6 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate

Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Terrain

a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m

Natural resources

lignite coal, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests

Land use

arable land: 8.53%
permanent crops: 1.43%
other: 90.04% (2005)

Irrigated land

30 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

flooding and earthquakes

Environment current issues

Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europes major transit routes

People - Slovenia:

Population

2,009,245 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 13.7% (male 141,670/female 133,720)
15-64 years: 70.3% (male 712,409/female 700,844)
65 years and over: 16% (male 124,264/female 196,338) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 41 years
male: 39.4 years
female: 42.6 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.065% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

9 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

10.41 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.059 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.017 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.633 male(s)/female
total population: 0.949 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.35 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.53 years
male: 72.84 years
female: 80.47 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.26 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

280 (2001 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality

noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups

Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)

Religions

Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)

Languages

Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)

Literacy

definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6%

Government - Slovenia:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: Peoples Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia

Government type

parliamentary republic

Capital

name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: there may be 45 more municipalities

Independence

25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)

Constitution

adopted 23 December 1991

Legal system

based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Janez DRNOVSEK (since 22 December 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Janez JANSA (since 9 November 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 10 November and 1 December 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2007); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 November 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held in October 2008)
election results: Janez DRNOVSEK elected president; percent of vote - Janez DRNOVSEK 56.5%, Barbara BREZIGAR 43.5%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister; National Assembly vote - 57 to 27

Legislative branch

bicameral Parliament consists of a National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 members are directly elected and 50 are elected on a proportional basis; note - the number of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; the constitution mandates 1 seat each for Slovenias Hungarian and Italian minorities; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve five-year terms; note - this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decision, and call national referenda)
elections: National Assembly - last held 3 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDS 29.1%, LDS 22.8%, ZLSD 10.2%, NSi 9%, SLS 6.8%, SNS 6.3%, DeSUS 4.1%, other 11.7%; seats by party - SDS 29, LDS 23, ZLSD 10, NSi 9, SLS 7, SNS 6, DeSUS 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1

Judicial branch

Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)

Political parties and leaders

Liberal Democratic Party or LDS [Jelko KACIN]; New Slovenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK]; Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene Peoples Party or SLS [Janez PODOBNIK]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR] (formerly ZLSD)

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Samuel ZBOGAR
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 667-5363
FAX: [1] (202) 667-4563
consulate(s) general: Cleveland, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas B. ROBERTSON
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenias highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands

Economy - Slovenia:

Economy overview

With a GDP per capita substantially greater than the other transitioning economies of Central Europe, Slovenia is a model of economic success and stability for its neighbors from the former Yugoslavia. The country, which joined the EU in May 2004 and joined the eurozone on 1 January 2007, has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and an excellent central location. Privatization of the economy proceeded at an accelerated pace in 2002-05. Despite lackluster economic performance in Europe in 2001-05, Slovenia maintained moderate growth. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for greater foreign participation in Slovenias economy and have helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. Despite its economic success, Slovenia faces growing challenges. Much of the economy remains in state hands and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU on a per capita basis. Although tax reforms were implemented in December 2006, taxes are still relatively high. The labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere. The current center-right government, elected in October 2004, has pledged to accelerate privatization of a number of large state holdings and is interested in increasing FDI in Slovenia. In late 2005, the governments new Committee for Economic Reforms was elevated to cabinet-level status. The Committees program includes plans for lowering the tax burden, privatizing state-controlled firms, improving the flexibility of the labor market, and increasing the governments efficiency.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$47.01 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$37.92 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

5.2% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$23,400 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 2.3%
industry: 34.1%
services: 63.6% (2006 est.)

Labor force

1.026 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 4.8%
industry: 39.1%
services: 56.1% (2004)

Unemployment rate

9.6% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

12.9% (2004)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 21.4% (1998)

Distribution of family income gini index

28.4 (1998)

Inflation rate consumer prices

2.4% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

25.6% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $15.9 billion
expenditures: $16.35 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

29% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry

Industries

ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Industrial production growth rate

5.6% (2006)

Electricity production

14.9 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity consumption

13.71 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity exports

4.8 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity imports

4.07 billion kWh (2006)

Oil production

8 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil consumption

53,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

1.1 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

1.1 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance

-$789.2 million (2006 est.)

Exports

$21.85 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food

Exports partners

Germany 20.1%, Italy 13%, Croatia 9.1%, Austria 8.8%, France 6.5%, Russia 4.4% (2006)

Imports

$23.59 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food

Imports partners

Germany 19.7%, Italy 18.1%, Austria 11.9%, France 6%, Croatia 4.7% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$8.631 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$29.09 billion (30 October 2006)

Economic aid recipient

ODA, $484 million (2004-06)
note: in March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank

Currency code

euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 2007, the euro became Slovenias currency; both the tolar and the euro were in circulation from 1 January until 15 January 2007

Exchange rates

tolars per US dollar - 190.85 (2006), 192.71 (2005), 192.38 (2004), 207.11 (2003), 240.25 (2002)
note: Slovenia adopted the euro as its currency on 1 January 2007

Communications - Slovenia:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

837,500 (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

1.82 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: NA
domestic: 100% digital (2000)
international: country code - 386

Radio broadcast stations

AM 10, FM 230, shortwave 0 (2006)

Television broadcast stations

31 (2006)

Internet country code

.si

Internet hosts

61,735 (2006)

Internet users

1.251 million (2006)

Transportation - Slovenia:

Airports

14 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 2,526 km; oil 11 km (2006)

Railways

total: 1,229 km
standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (504 km electrified) (2006)

Roadways

total: 38,451 km
paved: 38,451 km (includes 483 km of expressways) (2004)

Merchant marine

registered in other countries: 26 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 1, Cyprus 4, Georgia 1, Liberia 2, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Singapore 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Koper

Military - Slovenia:

Military branches

Slovenian Army (includes air and naval forces)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2007)

Manpower available for military service

males age 17-49: 496,929
females age 17-49: 483,959 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 17-49: 405,593
females age 17-49: 397,167 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 12,816
females age 17-49: 12,178 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

1.7% (2005 est.)

Disputes international

the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains unratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatias 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a member state that forms part of the EUs external border, Slovenia must implement the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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