Serbia

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Introduction - Serbia:

Country

Serbia

Background

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germanys occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip TITO (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITOs new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Serbian Republic and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVICs leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a Greater Serbia. These actions led to Yugoslavia being ousted from the UN in 1992, but Serbia continued its - ultimately unsuccessful - campaign until signing the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC kept tight control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, a small-scale ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries. The MILOSEVIC governments rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATOs bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999 and to the eventual withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999. UNSC Resolution 1244 in June 1999 authorized the stationing of a NATO-led force (KFOR) in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the regions ethnic communities, created a UN Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to foster self-governing institutions, and reserved the issue of Kosovos final status for an unspecified date in the future. In 2001, UNMIK promulgated a constitutional framework that allowed Kosovo to establish institutions of self-government and led to Kosovos first parliamentary election. FRY elections in September 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. A broad coalition of democratic reformist parties known as DOS (the Democratic Opposition of Serbia) was subsequently elected to parliament in December 2000 and took control of the government. The arrest of MILOSEVIC by DOS in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. (MILOSEVIC died at The Hague in March 2006 before the completion of his trial.) In 2001, the countrys suspension from the UN was lifted, and it was once more accepted into UN organizations. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics with a federal level parliament. Violent rioting in Kosovo in 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The referendum was successful, and Montenegro declared itself an independent nation on 3 June 2006. Two days later, Serbia declared that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In October 2006, the Serbian parliament unanimously approved - and a referendum confirmed - a new constitution for the country.

Location - Serbia:

Location

Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary

Geographic coordinates

44 00 N, 21 00 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 88,361 sq km
land: 88,361 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area comparative

slightly larger than South Carolina

Land boundaries

total: 2,027 km
border countries: Albania 115 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Macedonia 221 km, Montenegro 203 km, Romania 476 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)

Terrain

extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills

Elevation extremes

lowest point: NA
highest point: Daravica 2,656 m

Natural resources

oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, antimony, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land

Land use

arable land: NA
permanent crops: NA
other: NA

Irrigated land

NA

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment current issues

air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East

People - Serbia:

Population

10,150,265 (July 2007 est.)

Median age

total: 37.3 years
male: 35.9 years
female: 38.8 years (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 75.06 years
male: 72.49 years
female: 77.86 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.69 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Nationality

noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian

Ethnic groups

Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)

Religions

Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)

Languages

Serbian 88.3% (official), Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census)
note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina; Albanian official in Kosovo

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.9%
female: 94.1% (2003 census)
note: includes Montenegro but excludes Kosovo

Government - Serbia:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: Peoples Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Belgrade
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

190 municipalities (opcinas, singular - opcina)
Serbia Proper: Beograd: Barajevo, Cukavica, Grocka, Lazarevac, Mladnovac, Novi Beograd, Obrenovac, Palilula, Rakovica, Savski Venac, Sopot, Stari Grad, Surcin, Vozdovac, Vracar, Zemun, Zrezdara; Borski Okrug: Bor, Kladovo, Majdanpek, Negotin; Branicevski Okrug: Golubac, Kucevo, Malo Crnice, Petrovac, Pozarevac, Veliko Gradiste, Zabari, Zagubica; Jablanicki Okrug: Bojnik, Crna Trava, Lebane, Leskovac, Medvedja, Vlasotince; Kolubarski Okrug: Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Ub, Valjevo; Macvanski Okrug: Bogatic, Koceljeva, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Mali Zvornik, Sabac, Vladimirci; Moravicki Okrug: Cacak, Gornkji Milanovac, Ivanjica, Lucani; Nisavski Okrug: Aleksinac, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Merosina, Nis, Razanj, Svrljig; Pcinjski Okrug: Bosilegrad, Bujanovac, Presevo, Surdulica, Trgoviste, Vladicin Han, Vranje; Pirotski Okrug: Babusnica, Bela Palanka, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot; Podunavski Okrug: Smederevo, Smederevskia Palanka, Velika Plana; Pomoravski Okrug: Cuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina, Paracin, Rckovac, Svilajnac; Rasinski Okrug: Aleksandrovac, Brus, Cicevac, Krusevac, Trstenik, Varvarin; Raski Okrug: Kraljevo, Novi Pazar, Raska, Tutin, Vrnjacka Banja; Sumadijski Okrug: Arandjelovac, Batocina, Knic, Kragujevac, Lapovo, Raca, Topola; Toplicki Okrug: Blace, Kursumlija, Prokuplje, Zitoradja; Zajecarski Okrug: Boljevac, Knjazevac, Sokobanja, Zalecar; Zlatiborski Okrug: Arilje, Bajina Basta, Cajetina, Kosjeric, Nova Varos, Pozega, Priboj, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Uzice;
Vojvodina Autonomous Province: Juzno-Backi Okrug: Backi Petrovac, Beocin, Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, Temerin, Titel, Zabalj; Juzno Banatski Okrug: Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovacica, Kovin, Opovo, Pancevo, Plandiste, Vrsac; Severno-Backi Okrug: Backa Topola, Mali Idjos, Subotica; Severno-Banatski Okrug: Ada, Coka, Kanjiza, Kikinda, Novi Knezevac, Senta; Srednjo-Banatski Okrug: Nova Crnja, Novi Becej, Secanj, Zitiste, Zrenjanin; Sremski Okrug: Indjija, Irig, Pecinci, Ruma, Sid, Sremska Mitrovica, Stara Pazova; Zapadno-Backi Okrug: Apatin, Kula, Odzaci, Sombor;
Kosovo and Metojia Autonomous Province: Kosovski Okrug: Glogovac, Kacanik, Kosovo Polje, Lipljan, Obilic, Podujevo, Pristina, Stimlje, Strpce, Urosevac; Kosovsko-Mitrovacki Okrug: Kosovska Mitrovica, Leposavic, Srbica, Vucitrn, Zubin Potok, Zvecan; Kosovsko-Pomoravski Okrug: Gnjilane, Kosovska Kamenica, Novo Brdo, Vitina; Pecki Okrug: Decani, Djakovica, Istok, Klina, Pec; Prizrenski Okrug: Gora i Opolje, Orahovac, Prizren, Suva Reka

Independence

5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)

National holiday

National Day, 15 February

Constitution

adopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006

Legal system

based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Boris TADIC (since 11 July 2004); Kosovo - President Fatmir SEJDIU (since 10 February 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Vojislav KOSTUNICA (since 3 March 2004); Kosovo - Prime Minister Agim CEKU (since 10 March 2006)
cabinet: Federal Ministries act as cabinet; Kosovo - ministry heads act as cabinet; some ministry functions are controlled by the UNMIK
elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in 2007 due to constitutional changes); prime minister elected by the Assembly; Kosovo - president is elected by the Assembly for a three-year term; prime minister and proposed cabinet are elected by the Assembly
election results: Boris TADIC elected president in the second round of voting; Boris TADIC received 53% of the vote

Legislative branch

unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms); Kosovo - unicameral Assembly (120 seats; 100 deputies elected by direct vote and 20 deputies from minority community members; to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held on 21 January 2007 (next to be held in 2011); Kosovo - last held on 23 October 2004 (next to be held in 2007)
election results: Serbia National Assembly: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SRS 81, DSS 64, DSS-NS 47, G17 Plus 19, SPS 16, LDP Coalition 15, SVM 3, KZS 2, URS 1, KAPD 1, RP 1; Kosovo Assembly: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDK 46, PDK 30, AAK 9, SLKM 8, Ora 7, Bosniak Vakat coalition 4, KDTP 3, other 13

Judicial branch

Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (to become court of cassation under new constitution), appellate courts, district courts, municipal courts; Kosovo: Supreme Court, district courts, municipal courts, minor offense courts; note - Ministry of Justice was created on 20 December 2004; UNMIK appoints all judges and prosecutors; UNMIK is working on transferring competencies
note: Ministry of Justice was created on 20 December 2004; UNMIK appoints all judges and prosecutors; UNMIK is working on transferring competencies

Political parties and leaders

Coalition of Albanians of the Presevo Valley or KAPD [Riza HALIMI]; Coalition for Sandzak or KZS [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; G17 Plus [Mladjan DINKIC]; League of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Jozsef KASZA]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Roma Party or RP [Srdjan SAJN]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), but Tomislav NIKOLIC is acting leader]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Union of Roma of Serbia or URS [Rajko DJURIC]; Kosovo Albanian Christian Democatic Party or PShDK [Mark KRASNIQI]; Alliance for the Future of Kosovo or AAK [Rmuch HARADINAJ]; Citizens Initiative of Gora or GIG [Rustem IBISI]; Coalition Vakat; Democratic Ashkali Party of Kosovo or PDAK [Sabit RRAHMANI]; Democratic League of Kosovo or LDK [Fatmir SEJDIU]; Democratic Party of Kosovo or PDK [Hashim THACI]; Justice Party or PD [Sylejman CERKEZI]; Kosovo Democratic Turkish Party of KDTP [Mahir YAGCILAR]; Liberal Party of Kosovo or PLK [Gjergi DEDAJ]; New Democratic Initiative of Kosovo or IRDK [Xhevdet NEZIRAJ]; Ora Citizens List or Ora [Veton SURROI]; Party of Democratic Action or SDA [Numan BALIC]; Popular Movement of Kosovo or LPK [Emrush XHEMAJLI]; Serb List for Kosovo and Metohija or SLKM [Oliver IVANOVIC]; Serb Democratic Party or SDS KiM [Slavisa PETKOVIC]; United Roma Party of Kosovo or PREBK [Zylfi MERXHA]

International organization participation

ABEDA, BIS, BSEC, CE, CEI, EBRD, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD (suspended), IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Michael C. POLT
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230
note: there is a branch office in Pristina at 30 Nazim Hikmet 38000 Prstina, Kososvo; telephone: [381] (38) 549-516; FAX:[381] (38) 549-890

Flag description

three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side

Economy - Serbia:

Economy overview

MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavias infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, a down-sized Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. In November 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reschedule the countrys $4.5 billion public debt and wrote off 66% of the debt. In July 2004, the London Club of private creditors forgave $1.7 billion of debt just over half the total owed. Belgrade has made only minimal progress in restructuring and privatizing its holdings in major sectors of the economy, including energy and telecommunications. It has made halting progress towards EU membership and is currently pursuing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels. Serbia is also pursuing membership in the World Trade Organization. Unemployment remains an ongoing political and economic problem. The Republic of Montenegro severed its economy from Serbia during the MILOSEVIC era; therefore, the formal separation of Serbia and Montenegro in June 2006 had little real impact on either economy. Kosovos economy continues to transition to a market-based system and is largely dependent on the international community and the diaspora for financial and technical assistance. The euro and the Serbian dinar are both accepted currencies in Kosovo. While maintaining ultimate oversight, UNMIK continues to work with the EU and Kosovos local provisional government to accelerate economic growth, lower unemployment, and attract foreign investment to help Kosovo integrate into regional economic structures. The complexity of Serbia and Kosovos political and legal relationships has created uncertainty over property rights and hindered the privatization of state-owned assets in Kosovo. Most of Kosovos population lives in rural towns outside of the largest city, Pristina. Inefficient, near-subsistence farming is common.
note: economic data for Serbia currently reflects information for the former Serbia and Montenegro, unless otherwise noted; data for Serbia alone will be added when available

Gdp purchasing power parity

$44.83 billion
note: data for Serbia includes Kosovo (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$19.19 billion for Serbia alone (excluding Kosovo) (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

5.9% for Serbia alone (excluding Kosovo) (2005 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$4,400 for Serbia (including Kosovo) (2005 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 16.6%
industry: 25.5%
services: 57.9% (2005 est.)

Labor force

2.961 million for Serbia (including Kosovo) (2002 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 30%
industry: 46%
services: 24%
note: excluding Kosovo and Montenegro (2002)

Unemployment rate

31.6%
note: unemployment is approximately 50% in Kosovo (2005 est.)

Population below poverty line

30%
note: data covers the former Serbia and Montenegro (1999 est.)

Inflation rate consumer prices

15.5% (2005 est.)

Investment gross fixed

14.2% of GDP (2005 est.)

Budget

revenues: $11.45 billion
expenditures: $11.12 billion; including capital expenditures $NA
note: figures are for Serbia and Montenegro; Serbian Statistical Office indicates that for 2006 budget, Serbia will have revenues of $7.08 billion (2005 est.)

Public debt

53.1% of GDP (2005 est.)

Agriculture products

wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, beef, pork, milk

Industries

sugar, agricultural machinery, electrical and communication equipment, paper and pulp, lead, transportation equipment

Industrial production growth rate

1.4% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

33.87 billion kWh (excludes Kosovo and Montenegro) (2004)

Electricity consumption

NA

Electricity exports

12.05 billion kWh (excludes Kosovo; exported to Montenegro) (2004)

Electricity imports

11.23 billion kWh (excluding Kosovo; imports from Montenegro) (2004)

Oil production

14,660 bbl/day (2003)

Oil consumption

85,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

38.75 million bbl (1 January 2002)

Natural gas production

650 million cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas consumption

2.55 billion cu m (2003 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

2.1 billion cu m
note: includes Montenegro (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

48.14 billion cu m (1 January 2005)

Current account balance

-$2.451 billion (2005 est.)

Exports

$6.428 billion (excluding Kosovo and Montenegro) (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

manufactured goods, food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment

Imports

$10.58 billion (excluding Kosovo and Montenegro) (2005 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$5.35 billion (2005 est.)

Debt external

$15.43 billion (including Montenegro) (2005 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$2 billion pledged in 2001 to Serbia and Montenegro (disbursements to follow over several years; aid pledged by EU and US has been placed on hold because of lack of cooperation by Serbia in handing over General Ratko MLADIC to the criminal court in The Hague)

Currency code

Serbian Dinar (RSD)

Exchange rates

Serbian dinars per US dollar - 58.6925

Communications - Serbia:

Telephones main lines in use

2.719 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

6.644 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has been slow as a result of damage stemming from the 1999 war and transition to a competitive market-based system; network was only 65% digitalized in 2005
domestic: teledensity remains below the average for neighboring states; GSM wireless service, available through 2 providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications service limited to urban centers
international: country code - 381

Radio broadcast stations

153 (station types NA) (2001)

Internet country code

.rs; note - former ccTLD .yu will remain in service until the end of 2006

Internet hosts

NA

Internet users

1.4 million (2006)

Transportation - Serbia:

Airports

39 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 12 (2006)

Heliports

4 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 3,177 km; oil 393 km (2006)

Railways

total: 3,800 km
standard gauge: 3,800 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 1,195 km) (2006)

Roadways

total: 37,887 km
paved: 23,937 km
unpaved: 13,950 km (2002)

Waterways

587 km (primarily on Danube and Sava rivers) (2005)

Merchant marine

note: see entry for Montenegro

Military - Serbia:

Military branches

Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Serbian naval force, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Joint Operations Command, Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2007)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age under wartime conditions; conscription is to be abolished in 2010; 9-month service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 60 for men and 50 for women (2007)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 100,651 (Croatia), 46,951 (Bosnia and Herzegovina)
IDPs: 228,000 (mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999) (2006)

Disputes international

as the final status of the Serbian province of Kosovo approaches resolution through the six-nation contact group, the several thousand peacekeepers from UNMIK since 1999, continue to keep the peace between Kosovar Albanians overwhelmingly supporting Kosovo independence and the Serb minority in Kosovo and Serbian officials in Belgrade, who oppose independence for the province; ethnic Albanians in Kosovo oppose demarcation of the boundary with Macedonia based on the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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