Saint Pierre and Miquelon

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Introduction - Saint Pierre and Miquelon:


Saint Pierre and Miquelon


First settled by the French in the early 17th century, the islands represent the sole remaining vestige of Frances once vast North American possessions.

Location - Saint Pierre and Miquelon:


Northern North America, islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, south of Newfoundland (Canada)

Geographic coordinates

46 50 N, 56 20 W

Map references

North America


total: 242 sq km
land: 242 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes eight small islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Area comparative

1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km


120 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy


mostly barren rock

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morne de la Grande Montagne 240 m

Natural resources

fish, deepwater ports

Land use

arable land: 12.5%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 87.5% (2005)

Irrigated land


Natural hazards

persistent fog throughout the year can be a maritime hazard

Environment current issues

recent test drilling for oil in waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon may bring future development that would impact the environment

Geography note

vegetation scanty

People - Saint Pierre and Miquelon:


7,036 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 23% (male 827/female 790)
15-64 years: 65.9% (male 2,352/female 2,288)
65 years and over: 11.1% (male 359/female 420) (2007 est.)

Dependency status

self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France

Median age

total: 34.6 years
male: 34.1 years
female: 35 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.128% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

13.08 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

6.82 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-4.97 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.047 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.028 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.855 male(s)/female
total population: 1.011 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 7.21 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.26 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.76 years
male: 76.41 years
female: 81.23 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

2 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate


Hiv aids people living with hiv aids


Hiv aids deaths



noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French

Ethnic groups

Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)


Roman Catholic 99%, other 1%


French (official)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (1982 est.)

Government - Saint Pierre and Miquelon:

Country name

conventional long form: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
conventional short form: Saint Pierre and Miquelon
local long form: Departement de Saint-Pierre et Miquelon
local short form: Saint-Pierre et Miquelon

Government type



name: Saint-Pierre
geographic coordinates: 46 46 N, 56 11 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November

Administrative divisions

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France); note - there are no first-order administrative divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are two communes - Saint Pierre, Miquelon at the second order


none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)

National holiday

Bastille Day, 14 July (1789)


4 October 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system

the laws of France, where applicable, apply


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Prefect Yves FAUQUEUR (since 28 August 2006)
head of government: President of the General Council Marc PLANTAGENEST (since NA)
cabinet: NA
elections: French president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 April 2002 (first round) and 5 May 2002 (second round) (next to be held in 2007); prefect appointed by the French president on the advice of the French Ministry of Interior; president of the General Council is elected by the members of the council

Legislative branch

unicameral General Council or Conseil General (19 seats, 15 from Saint Pierre and four from Miquelon; members are elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms)
elections: elections last held 19 and 26 in March 2006 (next to be held in March 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AD 16, Cap sur lAvenir 2, SPM Ensemble 1
note: Saint Pierre and Miquelon elect one seat to the French Senate; elections last held 26 September 2004 (next to be held in September 2013); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 1; Saint Pierre and Miquelon also elects one seat to the French National Assembly; elections last held, first round - 9 June 2002, second round - 16 June 2002 (next to be held in 2007); results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UDF 1

Judicial branch

Superior Tribunal of Appeals or Tribunal Superieur dAppel

Political parties and leaders

Archipelago Tomorrow or AD affiliated with UDF/RPR list; Cap sur lAvenir affiliated with PRG; Left Radical Party or PRG; Rassemblement pour la Republique or RPR (now UMP); Saint Pierre and Miquelon 2000/Avenir Miquelon or SPM 2000/AM; Socialist Party or PS; Union pour la Democratie Francaise or UDF

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the us

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

Diplomatic representation from the us

none (territorial overseas collectivity of France)

Flag description

a yellow sailing ship facing the hoist side rides on a dark blue background with yellow wavy lines under the ship; on the hoist side, a vertical band is divided into three parts: the top part (called ikkurina) is red with a green diagonal cross extending to the corners overlaid by a white cross dividing the rectangle into four sections; the middle part has a white background with an ermine pattern; the third part has a red background with two stylized yellow lions outlined in black, one above the other; these three heraldic arms represent settlement by colonists from the Basque Country (top), Brittany, and Normandy; the flag of France is used for official occasions

Economy - Saint Pierre and Miquelon:

Economy overview

The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because of disputes with Canada over fishing quotas and a steady decline in the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre. In 1992, an arbitration panel awarded the islands an exclusive economic zone of 12,348 sq km to settle a longstanding territorial dispute with Canada, although it represents only 25% of what France had sought. France heavily subsidizes the islands to the great betterment of living standards. The government hopes an expansion of tourism will boost economic prospects. Fish farming, crab fishing, and agriculture are being developed to diversify the local economy. Recent test drilling for oil may pave the way for development of the energy sector.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$48.3 million
note: supplemented by annual payments from France of about $60 million (2003 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate


Gdp real growth rate


Gdp per capita ppp

$7,000 (2001 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Labor force

3,450 (2005)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 18%
industry: 41%
services: 41% (1996 est.)

Unemployment rate

10.3% (1999)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate consumer prices

8.1% (2005)


revenues: $70 million
expenditures: $60 million; including capital expenditures of $24 million (1996 est.)

Agriculture products

vegetables; poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs; fish


fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Industrial production growth rate


Electricity production

50 million kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

46.5 million kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

0 kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

0 kWh (2004)

Oil production

0 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil consumption

500 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

0 cu m (2004 est.)


$5.5 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Exports commodities

fish and fish products, soybeans, animal feed, mollusks and crustaceans, fox and mink pelts

Exports partners

Spain 33.6%, Belgium 21.8%, India 18.3%, France 9.4%, US 7.5% (2006)


$68.2 million f.o.b. (2005 est.)

Imports commodities

meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials

Imports partners

France 51.3%, Canada 31.8%, Belgium 4.1% (2006)

Debt external


Economic aid recipient

approximately $60 million in annual grants from France

Currency code

euro (EUR)

Exchange rates

euros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)

Communications - Saint Pierre and Miquelon:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

4,800 (2002)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate
domestic: NA
international: country code - 508; radiotelephone communication with most countries in the world; satellite earth station - 1 in French domestic satellite system

Radio broadcast stations

AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

0 (2 repeaters rebroadcast programs from France, Canada, and the US) (1997)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

0 (2006)

Internet users


Transportation - Saint Pierre and Miquelon:


2 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Ports and terminals


Military - Saint Pierre and Miquelon:

Military note

defense is the responsibility of France

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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