Qatar

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Introduction - Qatar:
CountryQatar
BackgroundRuled by the al-Thani family since the mid-1800s, Qatar transformed itself from a poor British protectorate noted mainly for pearling into an independent state with significant oil and natural gas revenues. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Qatari economy was crippled by a continuous siphoning off of petroleum revenues by the amir, who had ruled the country since 1972. His son, the current Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa al-Thani, overthrew him in a bloodless coup in 1995. In 2001, Qatar resolved its longstanding border disputes with both Bahrain and Saudi Arabia. Oil and natural gas revenues enable Qatar to have one of the highest per capita incomes in the world.
Location - Qatar:
LocationMiddle East, peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates25 30 N, 51 15 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Areatotal: 11,437 sq km
land: 11,437 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundariestotal: 60 km
border countries: Saudi Arabia 60 km
Coastline563 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: as determined by bilateral agreements or the median line
Climatearid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers
Terrainmostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel
Elevation extremeslowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
highest point: Qurayn Abu al Bawl 103 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, fish
Land usearable land: 1.64%
permanent crops: 0.27%
other: 98.09% (2005)
Irrigated land130 sq km (2002)
Natural hazardshaze, dust storms, sandstorms common
Environment current issueslimited natural fresh water resources are increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notestrategic location in central Persian Gulf near major petroleum deposits
People - Qatar:
Population907,229 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 23.1% (male 106,853/female 102,713)
15-64 years: 72.9% (male 455,631/female 206,099)
65 years and over: 4% (male 26,689/female 9,244) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 31.9 years
male: 37.3 years
female: 23.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate2.386% (2007 est.)
Birth rate15.56 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate4.82 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate13.12 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 2.211 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 2.887 male(s)/female
total population: 1.852 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 17.46 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.14 years
male: 71.6 years
female: 76.82 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate2.75 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.09% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aidsNA
Hiv aids deathsNA
Nationalitynoun: Qatari(s)
adjective: Qatari
Ethnic groupsArab 40%, Indian 18%, Pakistani 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%
ReligionsMuslim 77.5%, Christian 8.5%, other 14% (2004 census)
LanguagesArabic (official), English commonly used as a second language
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 89%
male: 89.1%
female: 88.6% (2004 census)
Government - Qatar:
Country nameconventional long form: State of Qatar
conventional short form: Qatar
local long form: Dawlat Qatar
local short form: Qatar
note: closest approximation of the native pronunciation falls between cutter and gutter, but not like guitar
Government typeemirate
Capitalname: Doha
geographic coordinates: 25 17 N, 51 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 municipalities (baladiyat, singular - baladiyah); Ad Dawhah, Al Ghuwayriyah, Al Jumayliyah, Al Khawr, Al Wakrah, Ar Rayyan, Jarayan al Batinah, Madinat ash Shamal, Umm Said, Umm Salal
Independence3 September 1971 (from UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 3 September (1971)
Constitutionratified by public referendum on 29 April 2003, endorsed by the amir on 8 June 2004, effective on 9 June 2005
Legal systembased on Islamic and civil law codes; discretionary system of law controlled by the amir, although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law dominates family and personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Amir HAMAD bin Khalifa al-Thani (since 27 June 1995 when, as crown prince, he ousted his father, Amir KHALIFA bin Hamad al-Thani, in a bloodless coup); Crown Prince TAMIM bin Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, fourth son of the monarch (selected Heir Apparent by the monarch on 5 August 2003); note - Amir HAMAD also holds the positions of Minister of Defense and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces
head of government: Prime Minister HAMAD bin Jasim bin Jabir al-Thani (since 3 April 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Abdallah bin Hamad al-ATIYAH (since 3 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary
note: in April 2003, Qatar held nationwide elections for a 29-member Central Municipal Council (CMC), which has consultative powers aimed at improving the provision of municipal services; the first election for the CMC was held in March 1999
Legislative branchunicameral Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura (35 seats; members appointed)
note: no legislative elections have been held since 1970 when there were partial elections to the body; Council members have had their terms extended every four years since; the new constitution, which came into force on 9 June 2005, provides for a 45-member Consultative Council, or Majlis al-Shura; the public would elect two-thirds of the Majlis al-Shura; the amir would appoint the remaining members; preparations are underway to conduct elections to the Majlis al-Shura in late 2007
Judicial branchCourts of First Instance, Appeal, and Cassation; note - the Amir appoints all judges - based on the recommendation of the Supreme Judiciary Council - for renewable three-year terms
Political parties and leadersnone
Political pressure groups and leadersnone
International organization participationABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AMF, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDB, IFAD, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2555 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 274-1600 and 274-1603
FAX: [1] (202) 237-0061
consulate(s) general: Houston
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Chase UNTERMEYER
embassy: Al-Luqta District, 22 February Road, Doha
mailing address: P. O. Box 2399, Doha
telephone: [974] 488 4101
FAX: [974] 488 4176
Flag descriptionmaroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the hoist side
Economy - Qatar:
Economy overviewOil and gas account for more than 60% of GDP, roughly 85% of export earnings, and 70% of government revenues. Oil and gas have made Qatar one of the worlds faster growing and higher per-capita income countries - in 2006 per-capita income equaled that of the EU. Sustained high oil prices and increased natural gas exports in recent years have helped build Qatars budget and trade surpluses and foreign reserves. Proved oil reserves of more than 15 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current levels for 23 years. Qatars proved reserves of natural gas exceed 25 trillion cubic meters, more than 5% of the world total and third largest in the world. Qatar has permitted substantial foreign investment in the development of its gas fields during the last decade and is expected to become the worlds top liquefied natural gas (LNG) exporter in 2007. Qatar is also trying to attract foreign investment in the development of its non-energy projects by further liberalizing the economy.
Gdp purchasing power parity $26.37 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $30.76 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate7.1% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $29,800 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 0.1%
industry: 77.2%
services: 22.6% (2006 est.)
Labor force508,000 (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate3.2% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate consumer prices 7.2% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 33.2% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $22.51 billion
expenditures: $16.89 billion; including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (2006 est.)
Public debt23.6% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productsfruits, vegetables; poultry, dairy products, beef; fish
Industriescrude oil production and refining, ammonia, fertilizers, petrochemicals, steel reinforcing bars, cement, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate10% (2003 est.)
Electricity production12.4 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption11.53 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production790,500 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil consumption80,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves15.21 billion bbl (1 January 2005 est.)
Natural gas production39.17 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption15.11 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports24.06 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves25.77 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance$12.51 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$33.25 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesliquefied natural gas (LNG), petroleum products, fertilizers, steel
Exports partnersJapan 39.8%, South Korea 18.6%, Singapore 6.4%, Thailand 4.1% (2006)
Imports$12.36 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals
Imports partnersFrance 13.3%, Japan 10.1%, US 9.3%, Italy 8.9%, Germany 7.8%, UK 6.2%, Saudi Arabia 5.7%, South Korea 4.5% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$5.755 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$25.7 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$NA
Currency code Qatari rial (QAR)
Exchange ratesQatari rials per US dollar - 3.64 (2006), 3.64 (2005), 3.64 (2004), 3.64 (2003), 3.64 (2002)
Communications - Qatar:
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
Telephones main lines in use228,300 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular919,800 (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: modern system centered in Doha
domestic: NA
international: country code - 974; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and UAE; submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat
Radio broadcast stationsAM 6, FM 5, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations1 (plus 3 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code.qa
Internet hosts301 (2006)
Internet users289,900 (2006)
Transportation - Qatar:
Airports5 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 3
over 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Heliports1 (2006)
Pipelinescondensate 319 km; condensate/gas 209 km; gas 1,024 km; liquid petroleum gas 87 km; oil 844 km (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 1,230 km
paved: 1,107 km
unpaved: 123 km (1999)
Merchant marinetotal: 23 ships (1000 GRT or over) 750,669 GRT/1,177,673 DWT
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 3, container 8, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 8 (Kuwait 7, US 1)
registered in other countries: 4 (Honduras 1, Liberia 2, Panama 1) (2006)
Ports and terminalsDoha
Military - Qatar:
Military branchesQatari Amiri Land Force (QALF), Qatari Amiri Navy (QAN), Qatari Amiri Air Force (QAAF) (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for voluntary military service; land forces enlisted personnel are largely unprofessional foreign nationals (2005)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 302,873
females age 18-49: 137,856 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 238,566
females age 18-49: 116,595 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 7,851
females age 18-49: 7,040 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp10% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalnone
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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