New Zealand

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Introduction - New Zealand:
CountryNew Zealand
BackgroundThe Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, their chieftains entered into a compact with Britain, the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. In that same year, the British began the first organized colonial settlement. A series of land wars between 1843 and 1872 ended with the defeat of the native peoples. The British colony of New Zealand became an independent dominion in 1907 and supported the UK militarily in both World Wars. New Zealands full participation in a number of defense alliances lapsed by the 1980s. In recent years, the government has sought to address longstanding Maori grievances.
Location - New Zealand:
LocationOceania, islands in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Australia
Geographic coordinates41 00 S, 174 00 E
Map referencesOceania
Areatotal: 268,680 sq km
land: 268,021 sq km
water: NA
note: includes Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island, Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands
Area comparativeabout the size of Colorado
Land boundaries0 km
Coastline15,134 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climatetemperate with sharp regional contrasts
Terrainpredominately mountainous with some large coastal plains
Elevation extremeslowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Aoraki-Mount Cook 3,754 m
Natural resourcesnatural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone
Land usearable land: 5.54%
permanent crops: 6.92%
other: 87.54% (2005)
Irrigated land2,850 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsearthquakes are common, though usually not severe; volcanic activity
Environment current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; native flora and fauna hard-hit by invasive species
Environment international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic Seals, Marine Life Conservation
Geography noteabout 80% of the population lives in cities; Wellington is the southernmost national capital in the world
People - New Zealand:
Population4,115,771 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 20.8% (male 437,547/female 417,698)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 1,393,057/female 1,378,358)
65 years and over: 11.9% (male 214,189/female 274,922) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 34.2 years
male: 33.5 years
female: 35 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate0.95% (2007 est.)
Birth rate13.61 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate7.54 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate3.43 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.011 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.779 male(s)/female
total population: 0.987 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 5.67 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.48 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.82 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 78.96 years
male: 75.97 years
female: 82.08 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate1.79 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.1% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids1,400 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deathsless than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: New Zealander(s)
adjective: New Zealand
Ethnic groupsEuropean 69.8%, Maori 7.9%, Asian 5.7%, Pacific islander 4.4%, other 0.5%, mixed 7.8%, unspecified 3.8% (2001 census)
ReligionsAnglican 14.9%, Roman Catholic 12.4%, Presbyterian 10.9%, Methodist 2.9%, Pentecostal 1.7%, Baptist 1.3%, other Christian 9.4%, other 3.3%, unspecified 17.2%, none 26% (2001 census)
LanguagesEnglish (official), Maori (official), Sign Language (official)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
Government - New Zealand:
Country nameconventional long form: none
conventional short form: New Zealand
abbreviation: NZ
Government typeparliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Wellington
geographic coordinates: 41 28 S, 174 51 E
time difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in March
note: New Zealand is divided into two time zones, including Chatham Island
Dependent areasCook Islands, Niue, Tokelau
Administrative divisions16 regions and 1 territory*; Auckland, Bay of Plenty, Canterbury, Chatham Islands*, Gisborne, Hawkes Bay, Manawatu-Wanganui, Marlborough, Nelson, Northland, Otago, Southland, Taranaki, Tasman, Waikato, Wellington, West Coast
Independence26 September 1907 (from UK)
National holidayWaitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840); ANZAC Day (commemorated as the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)
Constitutionconsists of a series of legal documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments, as well as The Constitution Act 1986, which is the principal formal charter; adopted 1 January 1987, effective 1 January 1987
Legal systembased on English law, with special land legislation and land courts for the Maori; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Anand SATYANAND (since 23 August 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 10 December 1999); Deputy Prime Minister Michael CULLEN (since July 2002)
cabinet: Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general; deputy prime minister appointed by the governor general
Legislative branchunicameral House of Representatives - commonly called Parliament (120 seats; 69 members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies including 7 Maori constituencies, and 51 proportional seats chosen from party lists; to serve three-year terms)
elections: last held 17 September 2005 (next to be held not later than 15 November 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - NZLP 41.1%, NP 39.1%, NZFP 5.7%, Green Party 5.3%, Maori 2.1%, UF 2.7%, ACT New Zealand 1.5%, Progressive 1.2%, other 1.3%; seats by party - NZLP 50, NP 48, NZFP 7, Green Party 6, Maori 4, UF 3, ACT New Zealand 2, Progressive 1
note: results of 2005 election saw the total number of seats increase to 121 because the Maori Party won one more electorate seat than its entitlement under the party vote
Judicial branchSupreme Court; Court of Appeal; High Court; note - judges appointed by the Governor-General
Political parties and leadersACT New Zealand [Rodney HIDE]; Green Party [Jeanette FITZSIMONS]; Maori Party [Whatarangi WINIATA]; National Party or NP [John KEY]; New Zealand First Party or NZFP [Winston PETERS]; New Zealand Labor Party or NZLP [Helen CLARK]; Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON]; United Future or UF [Peter DUNNE]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationANZUS (US suspended security obligations to NZ on 11 August 1986), APEC, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CP, EAS, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, PCA, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIS, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Roy N. FERGUSON
chancery: 37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 328-4800
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5227
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador William P. McCORMICK
embassy: 29 Fitzherbert Terrace, Thorndon, Wellington
mailing address: P. O. Box 1190, Wellington; PSC 467, Box 1, APO AP 96531-1034
telephone: [64] (4) 462-6000
FAX: [64] (4) 499-0490
consulate(s) general: Auckland
Flag descriptionblue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation
Government notewhile not an official symbol, the Kiwi, a small native flightless bird, represents New Zealand
Economy - New Zealand:
Economy overviewOver the past 20 years the government has transformed New Zealand from an agrarian economy dependent on concessionary British market access to a more industrialized, free market economy that can compete globally. This dynamic growth has boosted real incomes (but left behind many at the bottom of the ladder), broadened and deepened the technological capabilities of the industrial sector, and contained inflationary pressures. Per capita income has risen for eight consecutive years and reached $26,000 in 2006 in purchasing power parity terms. Consumer and government spending have driven growth in recent years, and exports picked up in 2006 after struggling for several years. Exports are equal to about 24% of GDP, down from 33 percent of GDP in 2001. Thus far the economy has been resilient, and the Labor Government promises that expenditures on health, education, and pensions will increase proportionately to output.
Gdp purchasing power parity $106.9 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $98.39 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate1.5% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $26,200 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 4.3%
industry: 26.9%
services: 68.8% (2006 est.)
Labor force2.18 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 10%
industry: 25%
services: 65% (1995)
Unemployment rate3.8% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA
highest 10%: NA (1991 est.)
Distribution of family income gini index36.2 (1997)
Inflation rate consumer prices 3.8% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 22% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $41.51 billion
expenditures: $36.99 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt19.9% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productswheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, vegetables; wool, beef, lamb and mutton, dairy products; fish
Industriesfood processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining
Industrial production growth rate1.2% (2006 est.)
Electricity production41.1 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption38.22 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production27,860 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption150,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exports15,720 bbl/day (2004)
Oil imports140,900 bbl/day (2004)
Oil proved reserves51.48 million bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas production4.35 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption4.349 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves33.36 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance-$7.944 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$23.69 billion (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesdairy products, meat, wood and wood products, fish, machinery
Exports partnersAustralia 20.5%, US 13.1%, Japan 10.3%, China 5.4%, UK 4.9% (2006)
Imports$25.23 billion (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, vehicles and aircraft, petroleum, electronics, textiles, plastics
Imports partnersAustralia 20.5%, China 12.3%, US 11.8%, Japan 9.2%, Germany 4.4%, Singapore 4.4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$10 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid donorODA, NA (2006 est.)
Debt external$47 billion (2006 est.)
Currency code New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Exchange ratesNew Zealand dollars per US dollar - 1.5408 (2006), 1.4203 (2005), 1.5087 (2004), 1.7221 (2003), 2.1622 (2002)
Communications - New Zealand:
Fiscal year1 April - 31 March
note: this is the fiscal year for tax purposes
Telephones main lines in use1.729 million (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular3.53 million (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: excellent domestic and international systems
domestic: NA
international: country code - 64; submarine cables to Australia and Fiji; satellite earth stations - 1 InMarSat (Pacific Ocean), 7 other
Radio broadcast stationsAM 124, FM 290, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations41 (plus about 700 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code.nz
Internet hosts1.05 million (2006)
Internet users3.2 million (2006)
Transportation - New Zealand:
Airports118 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 45
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 4 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 73
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 40 (2006)
Pipelinescondensate 224 km; gas 1,693 km; liquid petroleum gas 45 km; oil 280 km; refined products 288 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 4,128 km
narrow gauge: 4,128 km 1.067-m gauge (506 km electrified) (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 92,931 km
paved: 59,783 km (includes 171 km of expressways)
unpaved: 33,148 km (2003)
Merchant marinetotal: 13 ships (1000 GRT or over) 136,361 GRT/124,972 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 2
foreign-owned: 4 (Australia 2, Germany 1, Isle of Man 1)
registered in other countries: 8 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Cook Islands 1, Dominica 4, France 1, UK 1) (2006)
Ports and terminalsAuckland, Lyttelton, Tauranga, Wellington, Whangarei
Military - New Zealand:
Military branchesNew Zealand Defense Force (NZDF): New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand Navy, Royal New Zealand Air Force (2006)
Military service age and obligation17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers cannot be deployed until the age of 18 (2001)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 17-49: 984,700
females age 17-49: 965,170 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 17-49: 809,519
females age 17-49: 802,069 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 29,738
females age 17-49: 28,523 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp1% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalasserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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