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Introduction - Mozambique:
BackgroundAlmost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the countrys development. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His newly elected successor, Armando Emilio GUEBUZA, has promised to continue the sound economic policies that have encouraged foreign investment.
Location - Mozambique:
LocationSoutheastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 801,590 sq km
land: 784,090 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km
Area comparativeslightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundariestotal: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Coastline2,470 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical to subtropical
Terrainmostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremeslowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resourcescoal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land usearable land: 5.43%
permanent crops: 0.29%
other: 94.28% (2005)
Irrigated land1,180 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardssevere droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Environment current issuesa long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notethe Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
People - Mozambique:
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 44.7% (male 4,692,126/female 4,647,960)
15-64 years: 52.5% (male 5,345,618/female 5,633,511)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 244,886/female 341,484) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.4 years
male: 16.9 years
female: 17.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.803% (2007 est.)
Birth rate38.54 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate20.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.949 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.717 male(s)/female
total population: 0.968 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 109.93 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 112.81 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 106.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 40.9 years
male: 41.4 years
female: 40.4 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate5.29 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate12.2% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids1.3 million (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths110,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and plague are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2007)
Ethnic groupsAfrican 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
ReligionsCatholic 23.8%, Muslim 17.8%, Zionist Christian 17.5%, other 17.8%, none 23.1% (1997 census)
LanguagesEmakhuwa 26.1%, Xichangana 11.3%, Portuguese 8.8% (official; spoken by 27% of population as a second language), Elomwe 7.6%, Cisena 6.8%, Echuwabo 5.8%, other Mozambican languages 32%, other foreign languages 0.3%, unspecified 1.3% (1997 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 47.8%
male: 63.5%
female: 32.7% (2003 est.)
Government - Mozambique:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution30 November 1990
Legal systembased on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Armando GUEBUZA (since 2 February 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Luisa DIOGO (since 17 February 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Armando GUEBUZA elected president; percent of vote - Armando GUEBUZA 63.7%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 31.7%
Legislative branchunicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 1-2 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 62%, RENAMO 29.7%, other 8.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 160, RENAMO 90
Judicial branchSupreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although the constitution provides for a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Political parties and leadersFront for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Armando Emilio GUEBUZA]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or RENAMO-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Political pressure groups and leadersInstitute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
International organization participationACP, AfDB, AU, C, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Armando PANGUENE
chancery: 1990 M Street NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge dAffaires James DUDLEY
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (1) 492797
FAX: [258] (1) 490448
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
Economy - Mozambique:
Economy overviewAt independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the worlds poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, have led to dramatic improvements in the countrys growth rate. Inflation was reduced to single digits during the late 1990s although it returned to double digits in 2000-06. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the governments revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the countrys work force. A substantial trade imbalance persists although the opening of the Mozal aluminum smelter, the countrys largest foreign investment project to date, has increased export earnings. In late 2005, and after years of negotiations, the government signed an agreement to gain Portugals majority share of the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity (HCB) company, a dam that was not transferred to Mozambique at independence because of the ensuing civil war and unpaid debts. More power is needed for additional investment projects in titanium extraction and processing and garment manufacturing that could further close the import/export gap. Mozambiques once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMFs Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.
Gdp purchasing power parity $29.17 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $6.323 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate7.9% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,500 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 21.1%
industry: 30.9%
services: 48% (2006 est.)
Labor force9.4 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate21% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line70% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%: 31.7% (1997)
Distribution of family income gini index39.6 (1996-97)
Inflation rate consumer prices 12.8% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 21.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $1.391 billion
expenditures: $1.822 billion (2006 est.)
Public debt23.2% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industriesfood, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), aluminum, petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate3.4% (2000)
Electricity production11.58 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption9.592 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports8.75 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity imports7.576 billion kWh (2004)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption11,500 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas production80 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption80 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves127.4 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance-$444.4 million (2006 est.)
Exports$2.429 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesaluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports partnersBelgium 29.3%, Italy 22%, Spain 12.7%, China 4.1% (2006)
Imports$2.815 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports partnersSouth Africa 35.9%, Australia 9.4%, China 5% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.353 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$2.392 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$632.8 million (2001)
Currency code metical (MZM)
Exchange ratesmeticais per US dollar - 25.4 (2006), 23,061 (2005), 22,581 (2004), 23,782 (2003), 23,678 (2002)
note: in 2006 Mozambique revalued its currency, with 1000 old meticais equal to 1 new meticais
Communications - Mozambique:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use67,000 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular2.339 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: fair system but not available generally (extremely low density with less than 1 main line per 100 persons)
domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international: country code - 258; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Television broadcast stations1 (2000)
Internet country
Internet hosts6,985 (2006)
Internet users178,000 (2005)
Transportation - Mozambique:
Airports158 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 136
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 34
under 914 m: 87 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 918 km; refined products 294 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 3,123 km
narrow gauge: 2,983 km 1.067-m gauge; 140 km 0.762-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (1999)
Waterways460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2007)
Merchant marinetotal: 2 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,964 GRT/5,324 DWT
by type: cargo 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2006)
Ports and terminalsBeira, Maputo, Nacala
Military - Mozambique:
Military branchesMozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha Mocambique, MM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2006)
Military service age and obligation18-30 years of age for compulsory military service; 2-year service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 3,793,373 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,751,223 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 185,314 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp0.8% (2006)
Disputes internationalnone
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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