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Introduction - Mongolia:




The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and later came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. The ex-Communist Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000 and produced a coalition government in 2004.

Location - Mongolia:


Northern Asia, between China and Russia

Geographic coordinates

46 00 N, 105 00 E

Map references



total: 1,564,116 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries

total: 8,220 km
border countries: China 4,677 km, Russia 3,543 km


0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)


vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Huyten Orgil) 4,374 m

Natural resources

oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron

Land use

arable land: 0.76%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.24% (2005)

Irrigated land

840 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

dust storms, grassland and forest fires, drought, and zud, which is harsh winter conditions

Environment current issues

limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

People - Mongolia:


2,951,786 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 28.7% (male 432,309/female 415,382)
15-64 years: 67.4% (male 994,186/female 995,986)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 49,517/female 64,406) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 24.6 years
male: 24.2 years
female: 24.9 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

1.486% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

21.07 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.998 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.769 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 42.65 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 45.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 66.99 years
male: 64.61 years
female: 69.48 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.25 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

less than 500 (2003 est)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 200 (2003 est.)


noun: Mongolian(s)
adjective: Mongolian

Ethnic groups

Mongol (mostly Khalkha) 94.9%, Turkic (mostly Kazakh) 5%, other (including Chinese and Russian) 0.1% (2000)


Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40% (2004)


Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.8%
male: 98%
female: 97.5% (2000 census)

Government - Mongolia:

Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Mongolia
local long form: none
local short form: Mongol Uls
former: Outer Mongolia

Government type

mixed parliamentary/presidential


name: Ulaanbaatar
geographic coordinates: 47 55 N, 106 55 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Saturday in March; ends last Saturday in September

Administrative divisions

21 provinces (aymguud, singular - aymag) and 1 municipality* (singular - hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy, Bulgan, Darhan-Uul, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Govi-Altay, Govisumber, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Orhon, Ovorhangay, Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs


11 July 1921 (from China)

National holiday

Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)


12 February 1992

Legal system

blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine continental or civil code and case-precedent; constitution ambiguous on judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR (since 24 June 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Miegombyn ENKHBOLD (since 25 January 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN (since 28 January 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister in consultation with the president and confirmed by the State Great Hural (parliament)
elections: presidential candidates nominated by political parties represented in State Great Hural and elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 22 May 2005 (next to be held in May 2009); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by State Great Hural
election results: Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR elected president; percent of vote - Nambaryn ENKHBAYAR 53.44%, Mendsaikhanin ENKHSAIKHAN 20.05%, Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN 13.92%, Badarchyn ERDENEBAT 12.59%; Miegombyn ENKHBOLD elected prime minister by the State Great Hural 56 to 10

Legislative branch

unicameral State Great Hural 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms
elections: last held 27 June 2004 (next to be held in June 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPRP 48.8%, MDC 44.8%, independents 3.5%, Republican Party 1.5%, others 1.4%; seats by party - MPRP 36, MDC 34, others 4; note - 2 seats disputed and unfilled; following June 2004 election MDC collapsed

Judicial branch

Supreme Court (serves as appeals court for peoples and provincial courts but rarely overturns verdicts of lower courts; judges are nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president)

Political parties and leaders

Citizens Will Republican Party or CWRP [Sanjaasurengiin OYUN] (also called Civil Courage Republican Party or CCRP); Democratic Party or DP [Tsakhiagiyn ELBEGDORJ]; Motherland-Mongolian New Socialist Democratic Party or M-MNSDP [Badarchyn ERDENEBAT]; Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Miegombyn ENKHBOLD]; Mongolian Republican Party or MRP [Bazarsadyn JARGALSAIKHAN]; Peoples Party or PP [Lamjav GUNDALAI]
note: DP and M-MNSDP formed Motherland-Democracy Coalition (MDC) in 2003 and with CWRP contested June 2004 elections as single party; MDCs leadership dissolved coalition in December 2004

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Ravdan BOLD
chancery: 2833 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7117
FAX: [1] (202) 298-9227

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Mark C. MINTON
embassy: Big Ring Road, 11th Micro Region, Ulaanbaatar
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 300, FPO AP 96521-0002; P.O. Box 1021, Ulaanbaatar-13
telephone: [976] (11) 329095
FAX: [976] (11) 320776

Flag description

three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red; centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is the national emblem (soyombo - a columnar arrangement of abstract and geometric representation for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang symbol)

Economy - Mongolia:

Economy overview

Economic activity in Mongolia has traditionally been based on herding and agriculture. Mongolia has extensive mineral deposits. Copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of GDP, disappeared almost overnight in 1990 and 1991 at the time of the dismantlement of the USSR. The following decade saw Mongolia endure both deep recession due to political inaction and natural disasters, as well as economic growth because of reform-embracing, free-market economics and extensive privatization of the formerly state-run economy. Severe winters and summer droughts in 2000-02 resulted in massive livestock die-off and zero or negative GDP growth. This was compounded by falling prices for Mongolias primary sector exports and widespread opposition to privatization. Growth was 10.6% in 2004, 5.5% in 2005, and 7.5% in 2006, largely because of high copper prices and new gold production. Mongolias economy continues to be heavily influenced by its neighbors. For example, Mongolia purchases 80% of its petroleum products and a substantial amount of electric power from Russia, leaving it vulnerable to price increases. China is Mongolias chief export partner and a main source of the shadow or grey economy. The World Bank and other international financial institutions estimate the grey economy to be at least equal to that of the official economy, but the formers actual size is difficult to calculate since the money does not pass through the hands of tax authorities or the banking sector. Remittances from Mongolians working abroad both legally and illegally are sizable, and money laundering is a growing concern. Mongolia settled its $11 billion debt with Russia at the end of 2003 on favorable terms. Mongolia, which joined the World Trade Organization in 1997, seeks to expand its participation and integration into Asian regional economic and trade regimes.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$5.852 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$1.54 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

7.5% according to official estimate (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$2,100 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 21.7%
industry: 27.9%
services: 50.4% (2005)

Labor force

1.577 million (2005)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 39.9%
industry: 31.4%
services: 28.7% (2005)

Unemployment rate

3.3% (2005)

Population below poverty line

36.1% (2004)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.1%
highest 10%: 37% (1995)

Distribution of family income gini index

44 (1998)

Inflation rate consumer prices

9.5% (2005 est.)


revenues: $695.3 million
expenditures: $634.5 million (2005 est.)

Agriculture products

wheat, barley, vegetables, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses


construction and construction materials; mining (coal, copper, molybdenum, fluorspar, tin, tungsten, and gold); oil; food and beverages; processing of animal products, cashmere and natural fiber manufacturing

Industrial production growth rate

3% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

3.43 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity consumption

2.94 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity exports

15.95 million kWh (2006)

Electricity imports

125 million kWh (2006)

Oil production

821.9 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

11,220 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil exports

821.9 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil imports

12,280 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas consumption

NA cu m

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2006 est.)

Natural gas imports



$1.064 billion f.o.b. (2005)

Exports commodities

copper, apparel, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals

Exports partners

China 68.4%, Canada 11.2%, US 7%, South Korea 5.1% (2006)


$1.184 billion c.i.f. (2005)

Imports commodities

machinery and equipment, fuel, cars, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea

Imports partners

Russia 30.1%, China 29.8%, Japan 12% (2006)

Debt external

$1.38 billion (2005)

Economic aid recipient

$203.35 million (2005)

Currency code

togrog/tugrik (MNT)

Exchange rates

togrogs/tugriks per US dollar - 1,179.6 (2006), 1,205 (2005), 1,185.3 (2004), 1,146.5 (2003), 1,110.3 (2002)

Communications - Mongolia:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

156,000 (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

557,200 (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: network is improving with international direct dialing available in many areas
domestic: very low density of about 6 main lines per 100 persons (roughly 25 per 100 persons including cellular mobile phones); there are 3 wireless providers
international: country code - 976; satellite earth stations - 7

Radio broadcast stations

AM 7, FM 115 (includes 20 National radio broadcaster repeaters), shortwave 4 (2006)

Television broadcast stations

456 (including provincial and low-power repeaters) (2006)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

272 (2006)

Internet users

268,300 (2005)

Transportation - Mongolia:


44 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 12
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 32
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2006)


2 (2006)


total: 1,810 km
broad gauge: 1,810 km 1.524-m gauge (2006)


total: 49,250 km
paved: 1,724 km
unpaved: 47,526 km (2002)


580 km
note: only waterway in operation is Lake Hovsgol (135 km); Selenge River (270 km) and Orhon River (175 km) are navigable but carry little traffic; lakes and rivers freeze in winter, are open from May to September (2004)

Merchant marine

total: 61 ships (1000 GRT or over) 319,053 GRT/479,190 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 49, passenger/cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 49 (China 4, Japan 1, North Korea 3, Lebanon 1, Malaysia 1, Russia 13, Singapore 10, Syria 1, Thailand 1, UAE 5, Ukraine 1, Vietnam 8) (2006)

Military - Mongolia:

Military branches

Mongolian Peoples Army (MPA), Mongolian Peoples Air Force (MPAF); there is no navy (2005)

Military service age and obligation

18-25 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 12 months in land or air defense forces or police; a small portion of Mongolian land forces (2.5 percent) is comprised of contract soldiers; women cannot be deployed overseas for military operations (2006)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 736,182
females age 18-49: 734,679 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 570,435
females age 18-49: 607,918 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 34,674
females age 18-49: 34,251 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

1.4% (2006)

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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