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Introduction - Mali:
BackgroundThe Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a coup that ushered in democratic government. President Alpha KONARE won Malis first democratic presidential election in 1992 and was reelected in 1997. In keeping with Malis two-term constitutional limit, KONARE stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE.
Location - Mali:
LocationWestern Africa, southwest of Algeria
Geographic coordinates17 00 N, 4 00 W
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 1.24 million sq km
land: 1.22 million sq km
water: 20,000 sq km
Area comparativeslightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote dIvoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatesubtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrainmostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremeslowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resourcesgold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower
note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land usearable land: 3.76%
permanent crops: 0.03%
other: 96.21% (2005)
Irrigated land2,360 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardshot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Environment current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelandlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
People - Mali:
Population11,995,402 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 48.2% (male 2,921,914/female 2,853,976)
15-64 years: 48.8% (male 2,891,494/female 2,959,142)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 149,301/female 219,575) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 15.9 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate2.681% (2007 est.)
Birth rate49.61 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate16.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-6.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.024 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.977 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.988 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 105.65 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 115.29 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 95.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 49.51 years
male: 47.6 years
female: 51.46 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate7.38 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate1.9% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids140,000 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths12,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2007)
Ethnic groupsMande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
ReligionsMuslim 90%, Christian 1%, indigenous beliefs 9%
LanguagesFrench (official), Bambara 80%, numerous African languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 46.4%
male: 53.5%
female: 39.6% (2003 est.)
Government - Mali:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence22 September 1960 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 22 September (1960)
Constitutionadopted 12 January 1992
Legal systembased on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Amadou Toumani TOURE (since 8 June 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Ousmane Issoufi MAIGA (since 30 April 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 29 April 2007 (next to be held April in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Amadou Toumani TOURE reelected president; percent of vote - Amadou Toumani TOURE 71.2%, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 19.2%, other 9.6%
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 1 and 22 July 2007 (next to be held in July 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (including ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (including RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
Judicial branchSupreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leadersAfrican Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general]; Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE]; Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA]; Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE); National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL]; Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Me Idrissa TRAORE]; Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME]; Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA]; Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT; Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA]; Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Bamou TOURE]; Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY]; Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Political pressure groups and leadersAlliance for Democratic Change or ACD; Patriotic Movement of the Ghanda Koye or MPGK; United Movement and Fronts of Azawad or MFUA
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Abdoulaye DIOP
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Terrence P. MCCULLEY
embassy: Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed V, Bamako
mailing address: B. P. 34, Bamako
telephone: [223] 222-5470
FAX: [223] 222-3712
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
Economy - Mali:
Economy overviewMali is among the poorest countries in the world, with 65% of its land area desert or semidesert and with a highly unequal distribution of income. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population is nomadic and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. Mali is heavily dependent on foreign aid and vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices for cotton, its main export, along with gold. The government has continued its successful implementation of an IMF-recommended structural adjustment program that is helping the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Malis adherence to economic reform and the 50% devaluation of the CFA franc in January 1994 have pushed up economic growth to a sturdy 5% average in 1996-2006. Worker remittances and external trade routes for the landlocked country have been jeopardized by continued unrest in neighboring Cote dIvoire.
Gdp purchasing power parity $14.77 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $5.847 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate5.1% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,300 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 45%
industry: 17%
services: 38% (2001 est.)
Labor force3.93 million (2001 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 80%
industry and services: 20% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate14.6% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line64% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1994)
Distribution of family income gini index50.5 (1994)
Inflation rate consumer prices 4.5% (2002 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $764 million
expenditures: $828 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2002 est.)
Agriculture productscotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Industriesfood processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rateNA%
Electricity production410 million kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption381.3 million kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh; note - recent hydropower developments may be providing electricity to Senegal and Mauritania (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption4,300 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Exports$323 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports commoditiescotton, gold, livestock
Exports partnersChina 35.6%, Thailand 9.4%, Taiwan 8.1%, Bangladesh 5.3%, Australia 5% (2006)
Imports$1.858 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports commoditiespetroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports partnersSenegal 13.8%, France 12.6%, Cote dIvoire 10.2% (2006)
Debt external$2.8 billion (2002)
Economic aid recipient$472.1 million (2002)
Currency code Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 522.59 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)
Communications - Mali:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use75,000 (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular869,600 (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; provides only minimal service
domestic: network consists of microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communications stations; expansion of microwave radio relay in progress
international: country code - 223; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 1, FM 28, shortwave 1 (the shortwave station in Bamako has seven frequencies and five transmitters and relays broadcasts for China Radio International) (2001)
Television broadcast stations1 (plus repeaters) (2001)
Internet country
Internet hosts278 (2006)
Internet users70,000 (2006)
Transportation - Mali:
Airports29 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 8 (2006)
Railwaystotal: 729 km
narrow gauge: 729 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 18,709 km
paved: 3,368 km
unpaved: 15,341 km (2004)
Waterways1,800 km (2007)
Ports and terminalsKoulikoro
Military - Mali:
Military branchesMalian Armed Forces: Army, Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2004)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 2,094,432
females age 18-49: 2,027,352 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,244,176
females age 18-49: 1,226,226 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp1.9% (2006)
Disputes internationalnone
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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