Macedonia

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Introduction - Macedonia:

Country

Macedonia

Background

Macedonia gained its independence peacefully from Yugoslavia in 1991, but Greeces objection to the new states use of what it considered a Hellenic name and symbols delayed international recognition, which occurred under the provisional designation of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. In 1995, Greece lifted a 20-month trade embargo and the two countries agreed to normalize relations. The United States began referring to Macedonia by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, in 2004 and negotiations continue between Greece and Macedonia to resolve the name issue. Some ethnic Albanians, angered by perceived political and economic inequities, launched an insurgency in 2001 that eventually won the support of the majority of Macedonias Albanian population and led to the internationally-brokered Framework Agreement, which ended the fighting by establishing a set of new laws enhancing the rights of minorities. The undetermined status of neighboring Kosovo, implementation of the Framework Agreement, and a weak economy continue to be challenges for Macedonia.

Location - Macedonia:

Location

Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

Geographic coordinates

41 50 N, 22 00 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 25,333 sq km
land: 24,856 sq km
water: 477 sq km

Area comparative

slightly larger than Vermont

Land boundaries

total: 766 km
border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 246 km, Serbia 221 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

warm, dry summers and autumns; relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

Terrain

mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
highest point: Golem Korab (Maja e Korabit) 2,764 m

Natural resources

low-grade iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, manganese, nickel, tungsten, gold, silver, asbestos, gypsum, timber, arable land

Land use

arable land: 22.01%
permanent crops: 1.79%
other: 76.2% (2005)

Irrigated land

550 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

high seismic risks

Environment current issues

air pollution from metallurgical plants

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

People - Macedonia:

Population

2,055,915 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.8% (male 210,418/female 195,884)
15-64 years: 69.1% (male 715,997/female 704,739)
65 years and over: 11.1% (male 99,892/female 128,985) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 34.4 years
male: 33.5 years
female: 35.5 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.263% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

12.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

8.78 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.074 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.016 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.774 male(s)/female
total population: 0.997 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 9.53 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 9.69 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.21 years
male: 71.73 years
female: 76.88 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.57 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

less than 200 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality

noun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian

Ethnic groups

Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)

Religions

Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63% (2002 census)

Languages

Macedonian 66.5%, Albanian 25.1%, Turkish 3.5%, Roma 1.9%, Serbian 1.2%, other 1.8% (2002 census)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.1%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.1% (2002 census)

Government - Macedonia:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Macedonia
conventional short form: Macedonia
local long form: Republika Makedonija
local short form: Makedonija
note: the provisional designation used by the UN, EU, and NATO is Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM)
former: Peoples Republic of Macedonia, Socialist Republic of Macedonia

Government type

parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Skopje
geographic coordinates: 42 00 N, 21 26 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

85 municipalities (opstini, singular - opstina); Aerodrom (Skopje), Aracinovo, Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Bogovinje, Bosilovo, Brvenica, Butel (Skopje), Cair (Skopje), Caska, Centar (Skopje), Centar Zupa, Cesinovo, Cucer-Sandevo, Debar, Debartsa, Delcevo, Demir Hisar, Demir Kapija, Dojran, Dolneni, Drugovo, Gazi Baba (Skopje), Gevgelija, Gjorce Petrov (Skopje), Gostivar, Gradsko, Ilinden, Jegunovce, Karbinci, Karpos (Skopje), Kavadarci, Kicevo, Kisela Voda (Skopje), Kocani, Konce, Kratovo, Kriva Palanka, Krivogastani, Krusevo, Kumanovo, Lipkovo, Lozovo, Makedonska Kamenica, Makedonski Brod, Mavrovo i Rastusa, Mogila, Negotino, Novaci, Novo Selo, Ohrid, Oslomej, Pehcevo, Petrovec, Plasnica, Prilep, Probistip, Radovis, Rankovce, Resen, Rosoman, Saraj (Skopje), Skopje, Sopiste, Staro Nagoricane, Stip, Struga, Strumica, Studenicani, Suto Orizari (Skopje), Sveti Nikole, Tearce, Tetovo, Valandovo, Vasilevo, Veles, Vevcani, Vinica, Vranestica, Vrapciste, Zajas, Zelenikovo, Zelino, Zrnovci
note: the ten municipalities followed by Skopje in parentheses collectively constitute the larger Skopje Municipality

Independence

8 September 1991 (referendum by registered voters endorsed independence from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Ilinden Uprising Day, 2 August (1903); note - also known as Saint Elijahs Day

Constitution

adopted 17 November 1991, effective 20 November 1991; amended November 2001 by a series of new constitutional amendments strengthening minority rights and in 2005 with amendments related to the judiciary

Legal system

based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Branko CRVENKOVSKI (since 12 May 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikola GRUEVSKI (since 26 August 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the majority vote of all the deputies in the Assembly; note - current cabinet formed by the government coalition parties VMRO/DPMNE, NSDP, PDSh/DPA, and several small parties
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); two-round election last held 14 April and 28 April 2004 (next to be held by April 2009); prime minister elected by the Assembly following legislative elections
election results: Branko CRVENKOVSKI elected president on second-round ballot; percent of vote - Branko CRVENKOVSKI 62.7%, Sasko KEDEV 37.3%

Legislative branch

unicameral Assembly or Sobranie (120 seats; members elected by popular vote from party lists based on the percentage of the overall vote the parties gain in each of six electoral districts; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5 July 2006 (next to be held by July 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - VMRO-DPMNE 33%, SDSM 22%, BDI/DUI 12%, PDSh/DPA 7%, NSDP 6%, VMRO-Narodna 6%, other 14%; seats by party - VMRO-DPMNE 45, SDSM 32, BDI/DUI 17, PDSh/DPA 11, NSDP 7, VMRO-Narodna 6, other 2

Judicial branch

Supreme Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Constitutional Court - the Assembly appoints the judges; Republican Judicial Council - the Assembly appoints the judges

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Alliance [Pavle TRAJANOV]; Democratic League of the Bosniaks [Rafet MUMINOVIC]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh/DPA [Arben XHAFERI]; Democratic Party of Serbs [Ivan STOILJKOVIC]; Democratic Party of Turks [Kenan HASIPI]; Democratic Renewal of Macedonia [Liljana POPOVSKA]; Democratic Union of Vlachs for Macedonia [Mitko KOSTOV]; Democratic Union for Integration or BDI/DUI [Ali AHMETI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI]; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-Peoples Party or VMRO-Narodna [Vesna JANEVSKA]; League for Democracy [Gjorgi MARJANOVIC]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Risto PENOV]; Liberal Party [Stojan ANDOV]; National Alternative [Harun ALIU]; National Democratic Party-New Democratic Forces or PDK-FRO [Hysni SHAQIR]; New Social Democratic Party or NSDP [Tito PETKOVSKI]; Party for Democratic Future [Alajdin DEMIRI]; Party for Democratic Prosperity or PPD/PDP [Abduljhadi VEJSELI]; Party for European Future or PEI [Fijat CANOSKI]; Social Democratic Alliance of Macedonia or SDSM [Radmila SEKERINSKA]; Socialist Party of Macedonia or SP [Ljubisav IVANOV-ZINGO]; Union of Romas or SR [Saliu SHABAN]; United Party for Emancipation or OPE [Nezdet MUSTAFA]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Federation of Free Trade Unions [Svetlana PETROVIC]; Federation of Trade Unions [Vanco MURATOVSKI]; World Macedonian Congress [Todor PETROV]

International organization participation

BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant)
chancery: 2129 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-0501
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2131
consulate(s) general: Southfield (Michigan)

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Gillian A. MILOVANOVIC
embassy: Bul. Ilindenska bb, 1000 Skopje
mailing address: American Embassy Skopje, US Department of State, 7120 Skopje Place, Washington, DC 20521-7120 (pouch)
telephone: [389] 2 311-6180
FAX: [389] 2 311-7103

Flag description

a yellow sun with eight broadening rays extending to the edges of the red field

Economy - Macedonia:

Economy overview

At independence in September 1991, Macedonia was the least developed of the Yugoslav republics, producing a mere 5% of the total federal output of goods and services. The collapse of Yugoslavia ended transfer payments from the central government and eliminated advantages from inclusion in a de facto free trade area. An absence of infrastructure, UN sanctions on the downsized Yugoslavia, and a Greek economic embargo over a dispute about the countrys constitutional name and flag hindered economic growth until 1996. GDP subsequently rose each year through 2000. However, the leaderships commitment to economic reform, free trade, and regional integration was undermined by the ethnic Albanian insurgency of 2001. The economy shrank 4.5% because of decreased trade, intermittent border closures, increased deficit spending on security needs, and investor uncertainty. Growth barely recovered in 2002 to 0.9%, then averaged 4% per year during 2003-06. Macedonia has maintained macroeconomic stability with low inflation, but it has lagged the region in attracting foreign investment, and job growth has been anemic. Macedonia has an extensive gray market, estimated to be more than 20 percent of GDP, that falls outside official statistics.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$16.94 billion
note: Macedonia has a large informal sector (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$6.225 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

3.1% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$8,300 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 9%
industry: 29%
services: 62% (2006 est.)

Labor force

899,000 (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 21.7%
industry: 32.6%
services: 45.7% (September 2006)

Unemployment rate

36% (September 2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

30% (2005)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

28.2 (1998)

Inflation rate consumer prices

3% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

9.2% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $2.234 billion
expenditures: $2.284 billion; including capital expenditures of $24 million (2006 est.)

Public debt

41.5% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

grapes, wine, tobacco, vegetables; milk, eggs

Industries

food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, iron, steel, cement, energy, pharmaceuticals

Industrial production growth rate

3.4% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

5.935 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity consumption

8.929 billion kWh (2006)

Electricity exports

0 kWh (2006)

Electricity imports

2.994 billion kWh (2006)

Oil production

0 bbl/day (2005)

Oil consumption

23,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

100 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

100 million cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance

-$167 million (2006 est.)

Exports

$2.341 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

food, beverages, tobacco; textiles, miscellaneous manufactures, iron and steel

Exports partners

Serbia and Montenegro 23.2%, Germany 15.6%, Greece 15.1%, Italy 9.9%, Bulgaria 5.4%, Croatia 5.2% (2006)

Imports

$3.631 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery and equipment, automobiles, chemicals, fuels, food products

Imports partners

Russia 15.1%, Germany 9.8%, Greece 8.5%, Serbia and Montenegro 7.5%, Bulgaria 6.7%, Italy 6% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.867 billion (November 2006)

Debt external

$2.285 billion (November 2006)

Economic aid recipient

$NA

Currency code

Macedonian denar (MKD)

Exchange rates

Macedonian denars per US dollar - 48.978 (2006), 48.92 (2005), 49.41 (2004), 54.322 (2003), 64.35 (2002)

Communications - Macedonia:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

490,900 (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

1.417 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: NA
domestic: NA
international: country code - 389

Radio broadcast stations

AM 29, FM 20, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

31 (plus 166 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code

.mk

Internet hosts

3,716 (2006)

Internet users

268,000 (2006)

Transportation - Macedonia:

Airports

17 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 8 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 4 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 268 km; oil 120 km (2006)

Railways

total: 699 km
standard gauge: 699 km 1.435-m gauge (223 km electrified) (2006)

Roadways

total: 8,684 km
paved: 5,540 km
unpaved: 3,144 km (1999)

Military - Macedonia:

Military branches

Army of the Republic of Macedonia (ARM): Joint Operational Command, with subordinate Air Wing (Makedonsko Voeno Vozduhoplovstvo, MVV), Special Operations Regiment (2007)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service (2007)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 498,259
females age 18-49: 481,317 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 411,156
females age 18-49: 397,839 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 16,686
females age 18-49: 15,664 (2005 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: fewer than 1,000 (ethnic conflict in 2001) (2006)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

6% (2005 est.)

Disputes international

ethnic Albanians in Kosovo object to demarcation of the boundary with Serbia in accordance with the 2000 Macedonia-Serbia and Montenegro delimitation agreement; Greece continues to reject the use of the name Macedonia or Republic of Macedonia

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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