Lithuania

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Introduction - Lithuania:
CountryLithuania
BackgroundIndependent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Location - Lithuania:
LocationEastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia
Geographic coordinates56 00 N, 24 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 65,200 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km
Area comparativeslightly larger than West Virginia
Land boundariestotal: 1,613 km
border countries: Belarus 653.5 km, Latvia 588 km, Poland 103.7 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 267.8 km
Coastline90 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
Climatetransitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers
Terrainlowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil
Elevation extremeslowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 293.6 m
Natural resourcespeat, arable land, amber
Land usearable land: 44.81%
permanent crops: 0.9%
other: 54.29% (2005)
Irrigated land70 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsNA
Environment current issuescontamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases
Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notefertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits
People - Lithuania:
Population3,575,439 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.9% (male 273,573/female 259,570)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 1,213,011/female 1,264,996)
65 years and over: 15.8% (male 194,500/female 369,789) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 38.6 years
male: 36.1 years
female: 41.2 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate-0.289% (2007 est.)
Birth rate8.87 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate11.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.959 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.526 male(s)/female
total population: 0.887 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 6.68 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 74.44 years
male: 69.46 years
female: 79.69 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate1.21 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.1% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids1,300 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deathsless than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian
Ethnic groupsLithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)
ReligionsRoman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)
LanguagesLithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.6% (2001 census)
Government - Lithuania:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government typeparliamentary democracy
Capitalname: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus
Independence11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union
Constitutionadopted 25 October 1992
Legal systembased on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Gediminas KIRKILAS (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 and 27 June 2004 (next to be held June 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Gediminas KIRKILAS approved by Parliament 85-13, with five abstentions
Legislative branchunicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members are elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 and 24 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor 28.6%, Working for Lithuania (Social Democrats and Social Liberals) 20.7%, TS 14.6%, For Order and Justice (Liberal Democrats and Lithuanian Peoples Union) 11.4%, Liberal and Center Union 9.1%, Farmers and New Democracy Union 6.6%, other 9%; seats by faction - Labor 29, Homeland Union 26, Social Democrats 23, Civil Democracy (split from Labor) 11, Liberal Movement (formerly Liberal Political Group) 11, National Farmers Union (formerly Farmers and New Democracy Union) 11, Social Liberal 10, Liberal Democrats 9, Liberal and Center Union 8, independents 3 (as of late-July 2006)
Judicial branchConstitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President
Political parties and leadersCivil Democracy Party [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; National Farmers Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party [Kestutis DAUKSYS]; Liberal and Center Union [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Democratic Party [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Liberal Movement [Petras AUSTREVICIUS]; Lithuanian Christian Democrats or LKD [Valentinas STUNDYS]; Lithuanian Peoples Union for a Fair Lithuania [Julius VESELKA]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS]; Social Liberal/New Union [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Social Union of Christian Conservatives [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationACCT (observer), Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Audrius BRUZGA
chancery: 4590 MacArthur Blvd. NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador John A. CLOUD
embassy: Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red
Economy - Lithuania:
Economy overviewLithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has grown rapidly since rebounding from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Unemployment fell to 3.7% in 2006, while wages grew 17.6%, contributing to rising inflation. Exports and imports continue to grow strongly, and the current account deficit rose to nearly 10% of GDP in 2006. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy, but foreign direct investment declined in 2006.
Gdp purchasing power parity $54.9 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $30.2 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate7.5% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $15,300 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 5.5%
industry: 33.3%
services: 61.2% (2006 est.)
Labor force1.617 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 15.8%
industry: 28.2%
services: 56% (2004)
Unemployment rate3.7%
note: based on survey data, official registered unemployment of 5.7% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line4% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 24.9% (2000)
Distribution of family income gini index32.5 (2003)
Inflation rate consumer prices 3.8% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 23% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $9.415 billion
expenditures: $9.761 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt18% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productsgrain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish
Industriesmetal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry
Industrial production growth rate7% (2006 est.)
Electricity production17.8 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption9.358 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports11.49 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity imports4.293 billion kWh (2004)
Oil production14,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption56,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exports145,100 bbl/day (2004)
Oil imports187,800 bbl/day (2004)
Oil proved reserves12 million bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004)
Natural gas consumption2.92 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports2.92 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$2.572 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$14.64 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesmineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)
Exports partnersRussia 12.8%, Latvia 11.1%, Germany 8.7%, Estonia 6.5%, Poland 6%, Netherlands 4.9%, Sweden 4.6%, UK 4.3%, US 4.3%, Denmark 4.2%, France 4.1% (2006)
Imports$18.25 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals
Imports partnersRussia 24.4%, Germany 14.9%, Poland 9.6%, Latvia 4.8% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$5.22 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$15.12 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$1.6 billion (1995)
Currency code litas (LTL)
Exchange rateslitai per US dollar - 2.7498 (2006), 2.774 (2005), 2.7806 (2004), 3.0609 (2003), 3.677 (2002)
Communications - Lithuania:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use792,400 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular4.718 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications
international: country code - 370; landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite
Radio broadcast stationsAM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations27 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2001)
Internet country code.lt
Internet hosts148,675 (2006)
Internet users1.083 million (2006)
Transportation - Lithuania:
Airports91 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 34
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 20 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 57
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 53 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 1,696 km; oil 228 km; refined products 121 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 1,771 km
broad gauge: 1,749 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 79,497 km
paved: 70,549 km (includes 417 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,948 km (2005)
Waterways425 km (2005)
Merchant marinetotal: 49 ships (1000 GRT or over) 353,094 GRT/352,883 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 14, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 10 (Denmark 10)
registered in other countries: 17 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belize 1, North Korea 1, Norway 1, Panama 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, unknown 3) (2006)
Ports and terminalsKlaipeda
Military - Lithuania:
Military branchesGround Forces, Naval Force, Lithuanian Military Air Forces, National Defense Volunteer Forces (2005)
Military service age and obligation19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for volunteers; 12-month conscript service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 19-49: 830,368
females age 19-49: 830,524 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 19-49: 590,606
females age 19-49: 676,102 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 29,689
females age 19-49: 28,543 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp1.2% (2006; 1.23% 2007 est.)
Disputes internationalLithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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