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Introduction - Lithuania:




Independent between the two World Wars, Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940 - an action never recognized by the US. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991 (following the abortive coup in Moscow). The last Russian troops withdrew in 1993. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.

Location - Lithuania:


Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, between Latvia and Russia

Geographic coordinates

56 00 N, 24 00 E

Map references



total: 65,200 sq km
land: NA sq km
water: NA sq km

Area comparative

slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 1,613 km
border countries: Belarus 653.5 km, Latvia 588 km, Poland 103.7 km, Russia (Kaliningrad) 267.8 km


90 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm


transitional, between maritime and continental; wet, moderate winters and summers


lowland, many scattered small lakes, fertile soil

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Juozapines Kalnas 293.6 m

Natural resources

peat, arable land, amber

Land use

arable land: 44.81%
permanent crops: 0.9%
other: 54.29% (2005)

Irrigated land

70 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards


Environment current issues

contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products and chemicals at military bases

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

fertile central plains are separated by hilly uplands that are ancient glacial deposits

People - Lithuania:


3,575,439 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.9% (male 273,573/female 259,570)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 1,213,011/female 1,264,996)
65 years and over: 15.8% (male 194,500/female 369,789) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 38.6 years
male: 36.1 years
female: 41.2 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.289% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

8.87 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

11.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.959 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.526 male(s)/female
total population: 0.887 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.68 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.29 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.44 years
male: 69.46 years
female: 79.69 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.21 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

1,300 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 200 (2003 est.)


noun: Lithuanian(s)
adjective: Lithuanian

Ethnic groups

Lithuanian 83.4%, Polish 6.7%, Russian 6.3%, other or unspecified 3.6% (2001 census)


Roman Catholic 79%, Russian Orthodox 4.1%, Protestant (including Lutheran and Evangelical Christian Baptist) 1.9%, other or unspecified 5.5%, none 9.5% (2001 census)


Lithuanian (official) 82%, Russian 8%, Polish 5.6%, other and unspecified 4.4% (2001 census)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.6% (2001 census)

Government - Lithuania:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Lithuania
conventional short form: Lithuania
local long form: Lietuvos Respublika
local short form: Lietuva
former: Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type

parliamentary democracy


name: Vilnius
geographic coordinates: 54 41 N, 25 19 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

10 counties (apskritys, singular - apskritis); Alytaus, Kauno, Klaipedos, Marijampoles, Panevezio, Siauliu, Taurages, Telsiu, Utenos, Vilniaus


11 March 1990 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 16 February (1918); note - 16 February 1918 was the date Lithuania declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 11 March 1990 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union


adopted 25 October 1992

Legal system

based on civil law system; legislative acts can be appealed to the constitutional court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Valdas ADAMKUS (since 12 July 2004)
head of government: Prime Minister Gediminas KIRKILAS (since 4 July 2006)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 13 and 27 June 2004 (next to be held June 2009); prime minister appointed by the president on the approval of the Parliament
election results: Valdas ADAMKUS elected president; percent of vote - Valdas ADAMKUS 52.2%, Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE 47.8%; Gediminas KIRKILAS approved by Parliament 85-13, with five abstentions

Legislative branch

unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; 71 members are elected by popular vote, 70 are elected by proportional representation; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 10 and 24 October 2004 (next to be held in October 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - Labor 28.6%, Working for Lithuania (Social Democrats and Social Liberals) 20.7%, TS 14.6%, For Order and Justice (Liberal Democrats and Lithuanian Peoples Union) 11.4%, Liberal and Center Union 9.1%, Farmers and New Democracy Union 6.6%, other 9%; seats by faction - Labor 29, Homeland Union 26, Social Democrats 23, Civil Democracy (split from Labor) 11, Liberal Movement (formerly Liberal Political Group) 11, National Farmers Union (formerly Farmers and New Democracy Union) 11, Social Liberal 10, Liberal Democrats 9, Liberal and Center Union 8, independents 3 (as of late-July 2006)

Judicial branch

Constitutional Court; Supreme Court; Court of Appeal; judges for all courts appointed by the President

Political parties and leaders

Civil Democracy Party [Viktor MUNTIANAS]; Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles [Valdemar TOMASZEVSKI]; National Farmers Union [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE]; Homeland Union/Conservative Party or TS [Andrius KUBILIUS]; Labor Party [Kestutis DAUKSYS]; Liberal and Center Union [Arturas ZUOKAS]; Liberal Democratic Party [Rolandas PAKSAS]; Liberal Movement [Petras AUSTREVICIUS]; Lithuanian Christian Democrats or LKD [Valentinas STUNDYS]; Lithuanian Peoples Union for a Fair Lithuania [Julius VESELKA]; Lithuanian Social Democratic Party [Algirdas BRAZAUSKAS]; Social Liberal/New Union [Arturas PAULAUSKAS]; Social Union of Christian Conservatives [Gediminas VAGNORIUS]; Young Lithuania and New Nationalists [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS]

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation

ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Audrius BRUZGA
chancery: 4590 MacArthur Blvd. NW, Suite 200, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5860
FAX: [1] (202) 328-0466
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador John A. CLOUD
embassy: Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius, LT-03106
mailing address: American Embassy, Akmenu Gatve 6, Vilnius LT-03106
telephone: [370] (5) 266 5500
FAX: [370] (5) 266 5510

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), green, and red

Economy - Lithuania:

Economy overview

Lithuania, the Baltic state that has conducted the most trade with Russia, has grown rapidly since rebounding from the 1998 Russian financial crisis. Unemployment fell to 3.7% in 2006, while wages grew 17.6%, contributing to rising inflation. Exports and imports continue to grow strongly, and the current account deficit rose to nearly 10% of GDP in 2006. Trade has been increasingly oriented toward the West. Lithuania has gained membership in the World Trade Organization and joined the EU in May 2004. Privatization of the large, state-owned utilities is nearly complete. Foreign government and business support have helped in the transition from the old command economy to a market economy, but foreign direct investment declined in 2006.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$54.9 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$30.2 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

7.5% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$15,300 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 5.5%
industry: 33.3%
services: 61.2% (2006 est.)

Labor force

1.617 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 15.8%
industry: 28.2%
services: 56% (2004)

Unemployment rate

note: based on survey data, official registered unemployment of 5.7% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

4% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 24.9% (2000)

Distribution of family income gini index

32.5 (2003)

Inflation rate consumer prices

3.8% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

23% of GDP (2006 est.)


revenues: $9.415 billion
expenditures: $9.761 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

18% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

grain, potatoes, sugar beets, flax, vegetables; beef, milk, eggs; fish


metal-cutting machine tools, electric motors, television sets, refrigerators and freezers, petroleum refining, shipbuilding (small ships), furniture making, textiles, food processing, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, optical equipment, electronic components, computers, amber jewelry

Industrial production growth rate

7% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

17.8 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

9.358 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

11.49 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

4.293 billion kWh (2004)

Oil production

14,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil consumption

56,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

145,100 bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports

187,800 bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves

12 million bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004)

Natural gas consumption

2.92 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

2.92 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.572 billion (2006 est.)


$14.64 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

mineral products 23%, textiles and clothing 16%, machinery and equipment 11%, chemicals 6%, wood and wood products 5%, foodstuffs 5% (2001)

Exports partners

Russia 12.8%, Latvia 11.1%, Germany 8.7%, Estonia 6.5%, Poland 6%, Netherlands 4.9%, Sweden 4.6%, UK 4.3%, US 4.3%, Denmark 4.2%, France 4.1% (2006)


$18.25 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

mineral products, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, metals

Imports partners

Russia 24.4%, Germany 14.9%, Poland 9.6%, Latvia 4.8% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$5.22 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$15.12 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$1.6 billion (1995)

Currency code

litas (LTL)

Exchange rates

litai per US dollar - 2.7498 (2006), 2.774 (2005), 2.7806 (2004), 3.0609 (2003), 3.677 (2002)

Communications - Lithuania:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

792,400 (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

4.718 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: inadequate, but is being modernized to provide an improved international capability and better residential access
domestic: a national, fiber-optic cable, interurban, trunk system is nearing completion; rural exchanges are being improved and expanded; mobile cellular systems are being installed; access to the Internet is available; still many unsatisfied telephone subscriber applications
international: country code - 370; landline connections to Latvia and Poland; major international connections to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway by submarine cable for further transmission by satellite

Radio broadcast stations

AM 29, FM 142, shortwave 1 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

27 (may have as many as 100 transmitters, including repeater stations) (2001)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

148,675 (2006)

Internet users

1.083 million (2006)

Transportation - Lithuania:


91 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 34
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 20 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 57
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 53 (2006)


gas 1,696 km; oil 228 km; refined products 121 km (2006)


total: 1,771 km
broad gauge: 1,749 km 1.524-m gauge (122 km electrified)
standard gauge: 22 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)


total: 79,497 km
paved: 70,549 km (includes 417 km of expressways)
unpaved: 8,948 km (2005)


425 km (2005)

Merchant marine

total: 49 ships (1000 GRT or over) 353,094 GRT/352,883 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 20, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 14, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 10 (Denmark 10)
registered in other countries: 17 (Antigua and Barbuda 3, Belize 1, North Korea 1, Norway 1, Panama 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, unknown 3) (2006)

Ports and terminals


Military - Lithuania:

Military branches

Ground Forces, Naval Force, Lithuanian Military Air Forces, National Defense Volunteer Forces (2005)

Military service age and obligation

19-45 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for volunteers; 12-month conscript service obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service

males age 19-49: 830,368
females age 19-49: 830,524 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 19-49: 590,606
females age 19-49: 676,102 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 29,689
females age 19-49: 28,543 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

1.2% (2006; 1.23% 2007 est.)

Disputes international

Lithuania and Russia committed to demarcating their boundary in 2006 in accordance with the land and maritime treaty ratified by Russia in May 2003 and by Lithuania in 1999; Lithuania operates a simplified transit regime for Russian nationals traveling from the Kaliningrad coastal exclave into Russia, while still conforming, as a EU member state having an external border with a non-EU member, to strict Schengen border rules; the Latvian parliament has not ratified its 1998 maritime boundary treaty with Lithuania, primarily due to concerns over potential hydrocarbons; as of January 2007, ground demarcation of the boundary with Belarus was complete and mapped with final ratification documents in preparation

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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