Liechtenstein

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Introduction - Liechtenstein:

Country

Liechtenstein

Background

The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719; it became a sovereign state in 1806. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the countrys low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. Shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight resulted in concerns about the use of financial institutions for money laundering. However, Liechtenstein implemented anti-money-laundering legislation over the past several years and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US went into effect in 2003.

Location - Liechtenstein:

Location

Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland

Geographic coordinates

47 16 N, 9 32 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 160 sq km
land: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area comparative

about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 76 km
border countries: Austria 34.9 km, Switzerland 41.1 km

Coastline

0 km (doubly landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain

mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Ruggeller Riet 430 m
highest point: Vorder-Grauspitz 2,599 m

Natural resources

hydroelectric potential, arable land

Land use

arable land: 25%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 75% (2005)

Irrigated land

NA

Natural hazards

NA

Environment current issues

NA

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

Geography note

along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

People - Liechtenstein:

Population

34,247 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 17.1% (male 2,902/female 2,963)
15-64 years: 70% (male 11,887/female 12,101)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 1,862/female 2,532) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 40.1 years
male: 39.5 years
female: 40.5 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.745% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

10.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

4.73 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.01 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 0.979 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.982 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.735 male(s)/female
total population: 0.946 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.13 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 79.81 years
male: 76.24 years
female: 83.4 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.51 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

NA

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

NA

Hiv aids deaths

NA

Nationality

noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein

Ethnic groups

Alemannic 86%, Italian, Turkish, and other 14%

Religions

Roman Catholic 76.2%, Protestant 7%, unknown 10.6%, other 6.2% (June 2002)

Languages

German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy

definition: age 10 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Government - Liechtenstein:

Country name

conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein

Government type

constitutional monarchy

Capital

name: Vaduz
geographic coordinates: 47 08 N, 9 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

11 communes (Gemeinden, singular - Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence

23 January 1719 (Principality of Liechtenstein established); 12 July 1806 (independence from the Holy Roman Empire)

National holiday

Assumption Day, 15 August

Constitution

5 October 1921

Legal system

local civil and penal codes based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS ADAM transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM retains status of chief of state
head of government: Head of Government Otmar HASLER (since 5 April 2001); Deputy Head of Government Klaus TSCHUETSCHER (since 21 April 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the head of government by the monarch and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag is usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government

Legislative branch

unicameral Parliament or Landtag (25 seats; members are elected by popular vote under proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 11 and 13 March 2005 (next to be held by 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 48.7%, VU 38.2%, FL 13%; seats by party - FBP 12, VU 10, FL 3

Judicial branch

Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Court of Appeal or Obergericht

Political parties and leaders

Patriotic Union or VU [Adolf HEEB] (was Fatherland Union); Progressive Citizens Party or FBP [Otmar HASLER]; The Free List or FL [Claudia HEEB-FLECK and Egon MATT]

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

CE, EBRD, EFTA, IAEA, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WCL, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Claudia FRITSCHE
chancery: 888 17th Street NW, Suite 1250, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0590
FAX: [1] (202) 331-3221

Diplomatic representation from the us

the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein; the US Ambassador to Switzerland is accredited to Liechtenstein

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown on the hoist side of the blue band

Economy - Liechtenstein:

Economy overview

Despite its small size and limited natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and living standards on a par with its large European neighbors. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$1.786 billion (2001 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$2.487 billion (2001)

Gdp real growth rate

11% (1999 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$25,000 (1999 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 6%
industry: 39%
services: 55% (2001)

Labor force

29,500 of whom 13,900 commute from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany to work each day (31 December 2001)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 2%
industry: 47%
services: 51% (31 December 2001 est.)

Unemployment rate

1.3% (September 2002)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate consumer prices

1% (2001)

Budget

revenues: $424.2 million
expenditures: $414.1 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (1998 est.)

Agriculture products

wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products

Industries

electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments

Industrial production growth rate

NA%

Exports

$2.47 billion (1996)

Exports commodities

small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products

Exports partners

EU 62.6% (Germany 24.3%, Austria 9.5%, France 8.9%, Italy 6.6%, UK 4.6%), US 18.9%, Switzerland 15.7% (2006)

Imports

$917.3 million (1996)

Imports commodities

agricultural products, raw materials, energy products, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles

Imports partners

EU, Switzerland (2006)

Debt external

$0 (2001)

Currency code

Swiss franc (CHF)

Exchange rates

Swiss francs per US dollar - 1.2539 (2006), 1.2452 (2005), 1.2435 (2004), 1.3467 (2003), 1.5586 (2002)

Communications - Liechtenstein:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

20,000 (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

27,500 (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: automatic telephone system
domestic: NA
international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay

Radio broadcast stations

AM 0, FM 4, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

NA (linked to Swiss networks) (1997)

Internet country code

.li

Internet hosts

4,697 (2006)

Internet users

22,000 (2006)

Transportation - Liechtenstein:

Pipelines

gas 20 km (2006)

Railways

9 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)
note: belongs to the Austrian Railway System connecting Austria and Switzerland (2006)

Roadways

total: 380 km
paved: 380 km (2006)

Waterways

28 km (2006)

Ports and terminals

none

Military - Liechtenstein:

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 7,736 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 6,250 (2005 est.)

Military note

defense is the responsibility of Switzerland

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 208 (2005 est.)

Disputes international

none

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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