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Introduction - Kyrgyzstan:
BackgroundA Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was annexed by Russia in 1864; it achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Nationwide demonstrations in the spring of 2005 resulted in the ouster of President Askar AKAYEV, who had run the country since 1990. Subsequent presidential elections in July 2005 were won overwhelmingly by former prime minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV. The political opposition organized demonstrations in Bishkek in April, May, and November 2006 resulting in the adoption of a new constitution that transferred some of the presidents powers to parliament and the government. In December 2006, the Kyrgyz parliament voted to adopt new amendments, restoring some of the presidential powers lost in the November 2006 constitutional change. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, reduction of corruption, improving interethnic relations, and combating terrorism.
Location - Kyrgyzstan:
LocationCentral Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates41 00 N, 75 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Areatotal: 198,500 sq km
land: 191,300 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundariestotal: 3,878 km
border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatedry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Terrainpeaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
Elevation extremeslowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadarya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Natural resourcesabundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land usearable land: 6.55%
permanent crops: 0.28%
other: 93.17%
note: Kyrgyzstan has the worlds largest natural growth walnut forest (2005)
Irrigated land10,720 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsNA
Environment current issueswater pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelandlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
People - Kyrgyzstan:
Population5,284,149 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 30.3% (male 817,663/female 785,167)
15-64 years: 63.5% (male 1,645,270/female 1,709,522)
65 years and over: 6.2% (male 127,600/female 198,927) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 23.9 years
male: 23.1 years
female: 24.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.354% (2007 est.)
Birth rate23.08 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate7.02 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-2.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.041 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.962 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.641 male(s)/female
total population: 0.962 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 33.38 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 38.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 68.81 years
male: 64.8 years
female: 73.02 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate2.68 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rateless than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids3,900 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deathsless than 200 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani
Ethnic groupsKyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbek 13.8%, Russian 12.5%, Dungan 1.1%, Ukrainian 1%, Uygur 1%, other 5.7% (1999 census)
ReligionsMuslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
LanguagesKyrgyz 64.7% (official), Uzbek 13.6%, Russian 12.5% (official), Dungun 1%, other 8.2% (1999 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.3%
female: 98.1% (1999 census)
Government - Kyrgyzstan:
Country nameconventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
local short form: Kyrgyzstan
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Bishkek
geographic coordinates: 42 52 N, 74 36 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holidayIndependence Day, 31 August (1991)
Constitutionadopted 5 May 1993; note - amendment proposed by President Askar AKAYEV and passed in a national referendum on 2 February 2003 significantly expanded the powers of the president at the expense of the legislature; during large-scale demonstrations in November 2006, President BAKIYEV and the opposition negotiated a new constitution granting greater powers to the parliament and the government; amendments added on 30 December 2006 redistributed some power back to the president
Legal systembased on French and Russian laws; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Kurmanbek BAKIYEV (since 14 August 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Almaz ATAMBAYEV (since 30 March 2007); First Deputy Prime Minister Daniyar USENOV (since 10 May 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister; note - following legislative elections under the constitution, the legislature will propose and the president appoint the prime minister, and the prime minister will propose and the president appoint members of the Cabinet, except for ministers in charge of defense and security, who will be appointed solely by the president
elections: Kurmanbek BAKIYEV elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 10 July 2005 (next scheduled for 2010); prime minister nominated by the president for approval by Parliament; note - the constitution calls for the legislature to propose and the president to appoint the prime minister after legislative elections, currently scheduled for 2010
election results: Kurmanbek BAKIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Kurmanbek BAKIYEV 88.6%, Tursunbai BAKIR-UULU 3.9%, other candidates 7.5%; Almaz ATAMBAYEV approved as prime minister 48-3
Legislative branchunicameral Supreme Council or Jorgorku Kenesh (75 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - the December 2006 constitution calls for 90 seats
elections: elections for the new unicameral body or Jorgorku Kenesh were held 27 February 2005, but the vast majority of positions remained undecided and were contested in a runoff election on 13 March 2005; election irregularities caused widespread protests that resulted in the president being forced to flee the country
election results: Supreme Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
Judicial branchSupreme Court; Constitutional Court (judges of both the Supreme and Constitutional Courts are appointed for 10-year terms by the Jorgorku Kenesh on the recommendation of the president; their age limit is 70 years); Higher Court of Arbitration; Local Courts (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Council on Legal Affairs for a probationary period of five years, then 10 years)
Political parties and leadersAr-Namys (Dignity) Party [Emil ALIYEV]; Asaba (Banner National Revival Party) [Azimbek BEKNAZAROV, Roza OTUNBAYEVA]; Ata-Meken (Fatherland) [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or DDK [Viktor TCHETRNOMORETS]; Erkindik (Freedom) Party [Topchubek TURGUNALIYEV]; Moya Strana (My Country Party of Action) [Medet SADYRKULOV]; Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan or KCP [Ishak MASALIYEV]; Party of Justice and Progress [Muratbek IMANALIEV]; Party of Peasants [Esengul ISAKOV]; Republican Party of Labor and Unity [Tabaldy OROZALIYEV]; Sanjira (Tree of Life) [Ednan KARABAYEV]; Social Democratic Party [Almaz ATAMBAYEV]; Sodruzhestvo (Cooperation) [Vladimir NIFADYEV, Samat BORUBAYEV]; Union of Democratic Forces [Kubatbek BAIBOLOV]
Political pressure groups and leadersAdilet Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]; Coalition for Democracy and Civil Society; For Reforms [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV, Almazbek ATAMBAYEV]; Interbilim [Asiya SASYKBAYEVA]
International organization participationAsDB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Zamira SYDYKOVA
chancery: 2360 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-5141
FAX: [1] (202) 386-7550
consulate(s): New York
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Marie L. YOVANOVITCH
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, Bishkek 720016
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
FAX: [996] (312) 551-264
Flag descriptionred field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the traditional Kyrgyz yurt
Economy - Kyrgyzstan:
Economy overviewKyrgyzstan is a poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, tobacco, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products, although only tobacco and cotton are exported in any quantity. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, and electricity. Following independence Kyrgyzstan was progressive in carrying out market reforms, such as an improved regulatory system and land reform, but political instability during 2005-06 has undercut the investment climate. Kyrgyzstan was the first Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) country to be accepted into the World Trade Organization. Much of the governments stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe after the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995, production began to recover and exports began to increase. The economy is heavily weighted toward gold export and a drop in output at the main Kumtor gold mine sparked a 0.5% decline in GDP in 2002, but GDP growth bounced back the following year. In 2005 Kyrgyzstan again experienced a decline in GDP, this time 0.6%. The government has made steady strides in controlling its substantial fiscal deficit, nearly closing the gap between revenues and expenditures in 2006. The government and international financial institutions have been engaged in a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy; in 2005 Bishkek agreed to pursue much-needed tax reform and in 2006 became eligible for the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) initiative. Progress fighting corruption, further restructuring of domestic industry, and success in attracting foreign investment are keys to future growth.
Gdp purchasing power parity $10.73 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $2.255 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate2.7% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $2,100 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 34.5%
industry: 19.5%
services: 46.1% (2006 est.)
Labor force2.7 million (2000)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 55%
industry: 15%
services: 30% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate18% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line40% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 23.3% (2001)
Distribution of family income gini index29 (2001)
Inflation rate consumer prices 6.4% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 15.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $498.3 million
expenditures: $544.8 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Agriculture productstobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
Industriessmall machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Industrial production growth rate-4.5% (2006 est.)
Electricity production14.06 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption6.777 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports6.4 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity imports100 million kWh (2004)
Oil production1,378 bbl/day (2004)
Oil consumption10,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves40 million bbl
Natural gas production29 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption919 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports890 million cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$287.3 million (2006 est.)
Exports$701.8 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiescotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, natural gas, hydropower; machinery; shoes
Exports partnersUAE 35.8%, Russia 20.2%, Kazakhstan 13.1%, China 11.8% (2006)
Imports$1.177 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesoil and gas, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs
Imports partnersChina 56.8%, Russia 15.1%, Kazakhstan 8.1% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$621.2 million (2006 est.)
Debt external$2.483 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$50 million from the US (2001)
Currency code som (KGS)
Exchange ratessoms per US dollar - 40.149 (2006), 41.012 (2005), 42.65 (2004), 43.648 (2003), 46.937 (2002)
Communications - Kyrgyzstan:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use440,400 (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular541,700 (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telecommunications infrastructure is growing; fixed line penetration remains low and concentrated in urban areas
domestic: 4 mobile cellular service providers with growing coverage
international: country code - 996; connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik, 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line (2006)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 3 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 20, shortwave NA (2006)
Television broadcast stations7 (1 countrywide and 6 regional stations) (2006)
Internet country
Internet hosts18,928 (2006)
Internet users298,100 (2006)
Transportation - Kyrgyzstan:
Airports37 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 16 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 254 km; oil 16 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 470 km
broad gauge: 470 km 1.520-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 18,500 km
paved: 16,854 km
unpaved: 1,646 km (1999)
Waterways600 km (2007)
Ports and terminalsBalykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybachye)
Military - Kyrgyzstan:
Military branchesArmy, Air Force, National Guard (2005)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for compulsory military service (2001)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,193,529
females age 18-49: 1,219,080 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 871,493
females age 18-49: 1,024,568 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 61,091
females age 18-49: 59,784 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp1.4% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalKyrgyzstan has yet to ratify the 2001 boundary delimitation with Kazakhstan; disputes in Isfara Valley delay completion of delimitation with Tajikistan; delimitation of 130 km of border with Uzbekistan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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