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Introduction - Kenya:
BackgroundFounding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978, when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997, which were marred by violence and fraud, but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Mwai KIBAKI, running as the candidate of the multiethnic, united opposition group, the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKIs NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over the constitutional review process. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition, the Orange Democratic Movement, which defeated the governments draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005.
Location - Kenya:
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates1 00 N, 38 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 582,650 sq km
land: 569,250 sq km
water: 13,400 sq km
Area comparativeslightly more than twice the size of Nevada
Land boundariestotal: 3,477 km
border countries: Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km, Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km
Coastline536 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatevaries from tropical along coast to arid in interior
Terrainlow plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west
Elevation extremeslowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Kenya 5,199 m
Natural resourceslimestone, soda ash, salt, gemstones, fluorspar, zinc, diatomite, gypsum, wildlife, hydropower
Land usearable land: 8.01%
permanent crops: 0.97%
other: 91.02% (2005)
Irrigated land1,030 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsrecurring drought; flooding during rainy seasons
Environment current issueswater pollution from urban and industrial wastes; degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; poaching
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notethe Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa; glaciers are found on Mount Kenya, Africas second highest peak; unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value
People - Kenya:
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 42.1% (male 7,826,804/female 7,720,456)
15-64 years: 55.2% (male 10,219,575/female 10,174,922)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 446,355/female 525,609) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.6 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 18.7 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate2.799% (2007 est.)
Birth rate38.94 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate10.95 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.014 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.004 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.849 male(s)/female
total population: 1.004 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 57.44 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 60.44 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 55.31 years
male: 55.24 years
female: 55.37 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate4.82 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate6.7% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids1.2 million (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths150,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria is a high risk in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2007)
Ethnic groupsKikuyu 22%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15%, non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%
ReligionsProtestant 45%, Roman Catholic 33%, Muslim 10%, indigenous beliefs 10%, other 2%
note: a large majority of Kenyans are Christian, but estimates for the percentage of the population that adheres to Islam or indigenous beliefs vary widely
LanguagesEnglish (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.1%
male: 90.6%
female: 79.7% (2003 est.)
Government - Kenya:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Kenya
conventional short form: Kenya
local long form: Republic of Kenya/Jamhuri y Kenya
local short form: Kenya
former: British East Africa
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Nairobi
geographic coordinates: 1 17 S, 36 49 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast, Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western
Independence12 December 1963 (from UK)
National holidayIndependence Day, 12 December (1963)
Constitution12 December 1963; amended as a republic 1964; reissued with amendments 1979, 1982, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1997, 2001; note - a new draft constitution was defeated by popular referendum in 2005
Legal systembased on Kenyan statutory law, Kenyan and English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; constitutional amendment of 1982 making Kenya a de jure one-party state repealed in 1991
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002); Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 September 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Mwai KIBAKI (since 30 December 2002); Vice President Moody AWORI (since 25 September 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); in addition to receiving the largest number of votes in absolute terms, the presidential candidate must also win 25% or more of the vote in at least five of Kenyas seven provinces and one area to avoid a runoff; election last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held in December 2007); vice president appointed by the president
election results: President Mwai KIBAKI elected; percent of vote - Mwai KIBAKI 63%, Uhuru KENYATTA 30%
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly or Bunge (224 seats; 210 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, 12 so-called nominated members who are appointed by the president but selected by the parties in proportion to their parliamentary vote totals, 2 ex-officio members)
elections: last held 27 December 2002 (next to be held in December 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NARC 125, KANU 64, FORD-P 14, other 7; ex-officio 2; seats appointed by the president - NARC 7, KANU 4, FORD-P 1
Judicial branchCourt of Appeal (chief justice is appointed by the president); High Court
Political parties and leadersForum for the Restoration of Democracy-Kenya or FORD-Kenya [Musikari KOMBO or Soita SHITANDA, disputed]; Forum for the Restoration of Democracy-People or FORD-People [Simeon NYACHAE]; Kenya African National Union or KANU [Nicholas BIWOTT or Uhuru KENYATTA, disputed]; National Rainbow Coalition-Kenya or NARC-K [Mwai KIBAKI, unofficially, since the break-up of KIBAKIs original coalition]; Orange Democratic Movement-Kenya or ODM-Kenya [Raila ODINGA, unofficially]
Political pressure groups and leadershuman rights groups; labor unions; Muslim organizations; National Convention Executive Council or NCEC, a proreform coalition of political parties and nongovernment organizations [Ndungu WAINANA]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Mutava MUSYIMI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches; Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM [Shaykh Abdul Gafur al-BUSAIDY]
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Peter Rateng Oginga OGEGO
chancery: 2249 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-6101
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3829
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Michael RANNEBERGER
embassy: US Embassy, United Nations Avenue, Gigiri; P. O. Box 606 Village Market Nairobi
mailing address: Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831
telephone: [254] (20) 537-800
FAX: [254] (20) 537-810
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red band is edged in white; a large warriors shield covering crossed spears is superimposed at the center
Economy - Kenya:
Economy overviewThe regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa, Kenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. In 1997, the IMF suspended Kenyas Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the governments failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption. A severe drought from 1999 to 2000 compounded Kenyas problems, causing water and energy rationing and reducing agricultural output. As a result, GDP contracted by 0.2% in 2000. The IMF, which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through the drought, again halted lending in 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures. Despite the return of strong rains in 2001, weak commodity prices, endemic corruption, and low investment limited Kenyas economic growth to 1.2%. Growth lagged at 1.1% in 2002 because of erratic rains, low investor confidence, meager donor support, and political infighting up to the elections. In the key December 2002 elections, Daniel Arap MOIs 24-year-old reign ended, and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation. In 2003, progress was made in rooting out corruption and encouraging donor support. Since then, however, the KIBAKI government has been rocked by high-level graft scandals. The World Bank suspended aid for most of 2006, and the IMF has delayed loans pending further action by the government on corruption. The scandals have not seemed to affect growth, with GDP growing more than 5% in 2006.
Gdp purchasing power parity $41.36 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $17.43 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate5.7% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,200 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 16.3%
industry: 18.8%
services: 65% (2004 est.)
Labor force1.955 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 75%
industry and services: 25% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate40% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line50% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 37.2% (2000)
Distribution of family income gini index44.5 (1997)
Inflation rate consumer prices 10.5% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 19.2% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $4.448 billion
expenditures: $5.377 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt50.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productstea, coffee, corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables; dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs
Industriessmall-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminum, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism
Industrial production growth rate6.3% (2006 est.)
Electricity production5.709 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption5.459 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports150 million kWh (2004)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil consumption55,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$1.119 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$3.614 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiestea, horticultural products, coffee, petroleum products, fish, cement
Exports partnersUganda 15.8%, UK 10.3%, US 8.2%, Netherlands 7.8%, Tanzania 7.7%, Pakistan 4.9% (2006)
Imports$6.602 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics
Imports partnersUAE 11.9%, India 8.9%, China 8.4%, Saudi Arabia 8.4%, US 7.1%, South Africa 6.4%, UK 5.4%, Japan 4.8% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$2.35 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$6.675 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$453 million (1997)
Currency code Kenyan shilling (KES)
Exchange ratesKenyan shillings per US dollar - 72.101 (2006), 75.554 (2005), 79.174 (2004), 75.936 (2003), 78.749 (2002)
Communications - Kenya:
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
Telephones main lines in use293,400 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular6.485 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: unreliable; little attempt to modernize except for service to business
domestic: trunks are primarily microwave radio relay; business data commonly transferred by a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system
international: country code - 254; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat
Radio broadcast stationsAM 24, FM 18, shortwave 6 (2001)
Television broadcast stations8 (2001)
Internet country
Internet hosts13,274 (2006)
Internet users2.77 million (2006)
Transportation - Kenya:
Airports225 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 15
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 210
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 115
under 914 m: 84 (2006)
Pipelinesrefined products 894 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 2,778 km
narrow gauge: 2,778 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 63,265 km (interurban roads)
paved: 8,933 km
unpaved: 54,332 km
note: there also are 100,000 km of rural roads and 14,500 km of urban roads for a national total of 177,765 km (2004)
Waterwayspart of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of Kenya (2006)
Merchant marinetotal: 3 ships (1000 GRT or over) 6,049 GRT/7,082 DWT
by type: passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 6 (Bahamas 1, Comoros 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Tuvalu 1, unknown 1) (2006)
Ports and terminalsMombasa
Military - Kenya:
Military branchesKenyan Army, Kenyan Navy, Kenyan Air Force (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 7,303,153
females age 18-49: 7,083,726 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 3,963,532
females age 18-49: 3,471,926 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 150,459 (Somalia), 76,646 (Sudan), 14,862 (Ethiopia)
IDPs: 431,150 (KANU attacks on opposition tribal groups in 1990s) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp2.8% (2006)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Kenya is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children trafficked for forced labor and sexual exploitation; children are trafficked within the country for domestic servitude, street vending, agricultural labor, and sexual exploitation; men, women, and girls are trafficked to the Middle East, other African nations, Western Europe, and North America for domestic servitude, enslavement in massage parlors and brothels, and manual labor; Chinese women trafficked for sexual exploitation reportedly transit Nairobi and Bangladeshis may transit Kenya for forced labor in other countries
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Kenya is placed on the Tier 2 Watch List due to a lack of evidence of increasing efforts to combat severe forms of trafficking
Disputes internationalKenya served as an important mediator in brokering Sudans north-south separation in February 2005; Kenya provides shelter to almost a quarter of a million refugees, including Ugandans who flee across the border periodically to seek protection from Lords Resistance Army (LRA) rebels; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists; the boundary that separates Kenyas and Sudans sovereignty is unclear in the Ilemi Triangle, which Kenya has administered since colonial times
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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