Iran

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Introduction - Iran:
Location - Iran:

Location

Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea, between Iraq and Pakistan

Geographic coordinates

32 00 N, 53 00 E

Map references

Middle East

Area

total: 1.648 million sq km
land: 1.636 million sq km
water: 12,000 sq km

Area comparative

slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries

total: 5,440 km
border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan 992 km

Coastline

2,440 km; note - Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements or median lines in the Persian Gulf
continental shelf: natural prolongation

Climate

mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain

rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Kuh-e Damavand 5,671 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use

arable land: 9.78%
permanent crops: 1.29%
other: 88.93% (2005)

Irrigated land

76,500 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes

Environment current issues

air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification; oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; wetland losses from drought; soil degradation (salination); inadequate supplies of potable water; water pollution from raw sewage and industrial waste; urbanization

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

Geography note

strategic location on the Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz, which are vital maritime pathways for crude oil transport

People - Iran:
Government - Iran:
Economy - Iran:
Communications - Iran:
Transportation - Iran:
Military - Iran:
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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