Indonesia

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Introduction - Indonesia:

Country

Indonesia

Background

The Dutch began to colonize Indonesia in the early 17th century; the islands were occupied by Japan from 1942 to 1945. Indonesia declared its independence after Japans surrender, but it required four years of intermittent negotiations, recurring hostilities, and UN mediation before the Netherlands agreed to relinquish its colony. Indonesia is the worlds largest archipelagic state and home to the worlds largest Muslim population. Current issues include: alleviating poverty, preventing terrorism, consolidating democracy after four decades of authoritarianism, implementing financial sector reforms, stemming corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and controlling avian influenza. In 2005, Indonesia reached a historic peace agreement with armed separatists in Aceh, which led to democratic elections in December 2006. Indonesia continues to face a low intensity separatist guerilla movement in Papua.

Location - Indonesia:

Location

Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean

Geographic coordinates

5 00 S, 120 00 E

Map references

Southeast Asia

Area

total: 1,919,440 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km

Area comparative

slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 2,830 km
border countries: Timor-Leste 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km

Coastline

54,716 km

Maritime claims

measured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain

mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m

Natural resources

petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

Land use

arable land: 11.03%
permanent crops: 7.04%
other: 81.93% (2005)

Irrigated land

45,000 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires

Environment current issues

deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

archipelago of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

People - Indonesia:

Population

234,693,997 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 28.7% (male 34,309,176/female 33,148,341)
15-64 years: 65.6% (male 77,132,708/female 76,731,481)
65 years and over: 5.7% (male 5,956,471/female 7,415,820) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 26.9 years
male: 26.4 years
female: 27.4 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

1.213% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

19.65 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

6.25 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-1.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.035 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.005 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.803 male(s)/female
total population: 1.001 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 32.14 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 37.39 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 26.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 70.16 years
male: 67.69 years
female: 72.76 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.38 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

110,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

2,400 (2003 est.)

Nationality

noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and chikungunya are high risks in some locations
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2007)

Ethnic groups

Javanese 40.6%, Sundanese 15%, Madurese 3.3%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Betawi 2.4%, Bugis 2.4%, Banten 2%, Banjar 1.7%, other or unspecified 29.9% (2000 census)

Religions

Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)

Languages

Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (the most widely spoken of which is Javanese)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 94%
female: 86.8% (2004 est.)

Government - Indonesia:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
local short form: Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Jakarta
geographic coordinates: 6 10 S, 106 49 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
note: Indonesia is divided into three time zones

Administrative divisions

30 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Irian Jaya Barat, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*
note: following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, the 440 districts or regencies have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services

Independence

17 August 1945 (declared)
note: recognized by the Netherlands on 27 December 1949; in August 2005, the Netherlands announced it recognized de facto Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945

National holiday

Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Constitution

August 1945; abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959; series of amendments concluded in 2002

Legal system

based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures and election codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age

Executive branch

chief of state: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO (since 20 October 2004); Vice President Muhammad Yusuf KALLA (since 20 October 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president were elected for five-year terms (eligible for a second term) by direct vote of the citizenry; last held 20 September 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: Susilo Bambang YUDHOYONO elected president receiving 60.6% of vote; MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri received 39.4%

Legislative branch

House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (550 seats; members elected to serve five-year terms); House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD), constitutionally mandated role includes providing legislative input to DPR on issues affecting regions; Peoples Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) has role in inaugurating and impeaching president and in amending constitution; consists of popularly-elected members in DPR and DPD; MPR does not formulate national policy
elections: last held 5 April 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - Golkar 21.6%, PDI-P 18.5%, PKB 10.6%, PPP 8.2%, PD 7.5%, PKS 7.3%, PAN 6.4%, others 19.9%; seats by party - Golkar 128, PDI-P 109, PPP 58, PD 55, PAN 53, PKB 52, PKS 45, others 50
note: because of election rules, the number of seats won does not always follow the percentage of votes received by parties

Judicial branch

Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates selected by the legislature); a separate Constitutional Court or Mahkamah Konstitusi was invested by the president on 16 August 2003; in March 2004 the Supreme Court assumed administrative and financial responsibility for the lower court system from the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights; Labor Court under supervision of Supreme Court began functioning in January 2006

Political parties and leaders

Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [MS KABAN]; Democratic Party or PD [Hadi UTOMO]; Functional Groups Party or Golkar [Yusuf KALLA]; Indonesia Democratic Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri]; National Awakening Party or PKB [MUHAIMIN Iskander]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Sutrisno BACHIR]; Prosperous Justice Party or PKS [Tifatul SEMBIRING]; United Development Party or PPP [Suryadharma ALI]

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

APEC, APT, ARF, AsDB, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador SUDJADNAN Parnohadiningrat

chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron R. HUME
embassy: Jalan 1 Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, FPO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 3435-9922
consulate(s) general: Surabaya
consulate(s): Medan; Denpasar (consular agency)

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red

Economy - Indonesia:

Economy overview

Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, has struggled to overcome the Asian financial crisis, and still grapples with persistent poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, endemic corruption, a fragile banking sector, a poor investment climate, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The country continues the slow work of rebuilding from the devastating December 2004 tsunami and from an earthquake in central Java in May 2006 that caused over $3 billion in damage and losses. Declining oil production and lack of new exploration investment turned Indonesia into a net oil importer in 2004. The cost of subsidizing domestic fuel placed increasing strain on the budget in 2005, and combined with indecisive monetary policy, contributed to a run on the currency in August, prompting the government to enact a 126% average fuel price hike in October. The resulting inflation and interest rate hikes dampened growth through mid-2006, while large increases in rice prices pushed millions more people under the national poverty line. Economic reformers introduced three policy packages in 2006 to improve the investment climate, infrastructure, and the financial sector, but translating them into reality has not been easy. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, building up the confidence of international and domestic investors, and strong global economic growth. Significant progress has been made in rebuilding Aceh after the devastating December 2004 tsunami, and the province now shows more economic activity than before the disaster. Unfortunately, Indonesia suffered new disasters in 2006 and early 2007 including: a major earthquake near Yogyakarta, an industrial accident in Sidoarjo, East Java that created a mud volcano, a tsunami in South Java, and major flooding in Jakarta, all of which caused additional damages in the billions of dollars. Donors are assisting Indonesia with its disaster mitigation and early warning efforts.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$948.3 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$264.7 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

5.5% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$3,900 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 13.1%
industry: 46%
services: 41% (2006 est.)

Labor force

108.2 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 43.3%
industry: 18%
services: 38.7% (2004 est.)

Unemployment rate

12.5% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

17.8% (2006)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 28.5% (2002)

Distribution of family income gini index

34.8 (2004)

Inflation rate consumer prices

13.2% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

20.3% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $75.58 billion
expenditures: $79.45 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

43.8% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs

Industries

petroleum and natural gas, textiles, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, food, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

2.6% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

123.4 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity consumption

107.7 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity exports

0 kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity imports

0 kWh (2005 est.)

Oil production

1.136 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

1.168 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil exports

474,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil imports

424,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil proved reserves

4.85 billion bbl (2006 est.)

Natural gas production

76 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas consumption

39.4 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas exports

36.29 billion cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas imports

0 cu m (2005 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

2.76 trillion cu m (31 December 2005 est.)

Current account balance

$1.636 billion (2006 est.)

Exports

$102.3 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber

Exports partners

Japan 19.3%, Singapore 11.8%, US 11.5%, South Korea 7.8%, China 7.7% (2006)

Imports

$77.73 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs

Imports partners

Singapore 30.3%, China 11.5%, Japan 9%, Malaysia 5%, Thailand 4.1%, Australia 4% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$43.04 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$130.4 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

ODA, $67 billion (2006 est.)
note: Indonesia ended 2006 with $67 billion in official foreign debt (about 25% of GDP), with Japan ($25 billion), the World Bank ($8.5 billion) and the Asian Development Bank ($8.4 billion) as the largest creditors; about $6 billion in grant assistance was pledged to rebuild Aceh after the December 2004 tsunami; President YUDHYONO ended the Consultative Group on Indonesia forum in January 2007

Currency code

Indonesian rupiah (IDR)

Exchange rates

Indonesian rupiah per US dollar - 9,159.3 (2006), 9,704.7 (2005), 8,938.9 (2004), 8,577.1 (2003), 9,311.2 (2002)

Communications - Indonesia:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

14.821 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

63.803 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: country code - 62; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

54 local TV stations (11 national TV networks; each with their own group of local transmitters) (2006)

Internet country code

.id

Internet hosts

170,834 (2006)

Internet users

16 million (2005)

Transportation - Indonesia:

Airports

662 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 159
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 15
1,524 to 2,437 m: 49
914 to 1,523 m: 49
under 914 m: 42 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 503
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 26
under 914 m: 471 (2006)

Heliports

23 (2006)

Pipelines

condensate 944 km; condensate/gas 135 km; gas 9,175 km; oil 7,684 km; oil/gas/water 89 km; refined products 1,367 km (2006)

Railways

total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (125 km electrified); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2006)

Roadways

total: 368,360 km
paved: 213,649 km
unpaved: 154,711 km (2002)

Waterways

21,579 km (2007)

Merchant marine

total: 824 ships (1000 GRT or over) 3,773,771 GRT/4,887,614 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 43, cargo 451, chemical tanker 21, container 50, liquefied gas 7, livestock carrier 1, passenger 41, passenger/cargo 58, petroleum tanker 132, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 12, specialized tanker 4, vehicle carrier 2
foreign-owned: 30 (France 1, Germany 1, Japan 3, South Korea 1, Norway 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 17, Switzerland 3, UK 2)
registered in other countries: 122 (Bahamas 4, Belize 2, Bermuda 1, Cambodia 1, Georgia 1, Hong Kong 4, Liberia 1, Panama 50, Singapore 56, Thailand 1, unknown 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Banjarmasin, Belawan, Ciwandan, Krueg Geukueh, Palembang, Panjang, Sungai Pakning, Tanjung Perak, Tanjung Priok

Military - Indonesia:

Military branches

Indonesian Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI): Army (TNI-AD), Navy (TNI-AL, includes marines, naval air arm), Air Force (TNI-AU)
note: the TNI is directly subordinate to the president but the government is making efforts to incorporate it into the Department of Defense

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 45 (2006)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 60,543,028
females age 18-49: 59,981,730 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 48,687,234
females age 18-49: 50,252,911 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 2,201,047
females age 18-49: 2,139,573 (2005 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 200,000-350,000 (government offensives against rebels in Aceh; most IDPs in Aceh, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi Provinces, and Maluku), 300,000 (December 2006 floods in Aceh regions) (2006)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

3% (2005 est.)

Disputes international

Indonesia has a stated foreign policy objective of establishing stable fixed land and maritime boundaries with all of its neighbors; East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee has resolved all but a small portion of the land boundary, but discussions on maritime boundaries are stalemated over sovereignty of the uninhabited coral island of Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai in the north and alignment with Australian claims in the south; many East Timorese refugees who left in 2003 still reside in Indonesia and refuse repatriation; a 1997 treaty between Indonesia and Australia settled some parts of their maritime boundary but outstanding issues remain; ICJs award of Sipadan and Ligitan islands to Malaysia in 2002 left the sovereignty of Unarang rock and the maritime boundary in the Ambalat oil block in the Celebes Sea in dispute; the ICJ decision has prompted Indonesia to assert claims to and to establish a presence on its smaller outer islands; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesias Batam Island; Indonesian secessionists, squatters, and illegal migrants create repatriation problems for Papua New Guinea; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait; maritime delimitation talks continue with Palau; Indonesian groups challenge Australias claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia has closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier Reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing and placed restrictions on certain catches

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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