Hungary

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Introduction - Hungary:

Country

Hungary

Background

Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under Communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and an announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. Under the leadership of Janos KADAR in 1968, Hungary began liberalizing its economy, introducing so-called Goulash Communism. Hungary held its first multiparty elections in 1990 and initiated a free market economy. It joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.

Location - Hungary:

Location

Central Europe, northwest of Romania

Geographic coordinates

47 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 93,030 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
water: 690 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries

total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

Terrain

mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m

Natural resources

bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land

Land use

arable land: 49.58%
permanent crops: 2.06%
other: 48.36% (2005)

Irrigated land

2,300 sq km (2003)

Environment current issues

the upgrading of Hungarys standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution to meet EU requirements will require large investments

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions

People - Hungary:

Population

9,956,108 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.3% (male 785,643/female 741,907)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 3,399,926/female 3,498,403)
65 years and over: 15.4% (male 554,356/female 975,873) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 38.9 years
male: 36.5 years
female: 41.5 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.253% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

9.66 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

13.05 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

0.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.059 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.972 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.568 male(s)/female
total population: 0.909 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 8.21 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 8.91 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.46 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.92 years
male: 68.73 years
female: 77.38 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.33 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

2,800 (2001 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality

noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian

Ethnic groups

Hungarian 92.3%, Roma 1.9%, other or unknown 5.8% (2001 census)

Religions

Roman Catholic 51.9%, Calvinist 15.9%, Lutheran 3%, Greek Catholic 2.6%, other Christian 1%, other or unspecified 11.1%, unaffiliated 14.5% (2001 census)

Languages

Hungarian 93.6%, other or unspecified 6.4% (2001 census)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.5%
female: 99.3% (2003 est.)

Government - Hungary:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
local short form: Magyarorszag

Government type

parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Budapest
geographic coordinates: 47 30 N, 19 05 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 22 urban counties (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city (fovaros)
counties: Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Csongrad, Fejer, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala
urban counties: Bekescsaba, Debrecen, Dunaujvaros, Eger, Gyor, Hodmezovasarhely, Kaposvar, Kecskemet, Miskolc, Nagykanizsa, Nyiregyhaza, Pecs, Salgotarjan, Sopron, Szeged, Szekesfehervar, Szekszard, Szolnok, Szombathely, Tatabanya, Veszprem, Zalaegerszeg
capital city: Budapest

Independence

1001 (unification by King STEPHEN I)

National holiday

Saint Stephens Day, 20 August

Constitution

18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949; revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system

Legal system

based German-Austrian legal system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Laszlo SOLYOM (since 5 August 2005)
head of government: Prime Minister Ferenc GYURCSANY (since 29 September 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; other ministers proposed by the prime minister and appointed and relieved of their duties by the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 6-7 June 2005 (next to be held by June 2010); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president; election last held 29 September 2004
election results: Laszlo SOLYOM elected president by a simple majority in the third round of voting, 185 to 182; Ferenc GYURCSANY elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 197 to 12
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round

Legislative branch

unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 9 and 23 April 2006 (next to be held in April 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - MSzP 43.2%, Fidesz-KDNP 42%, SzDSz 6.5%, MDF 5%, other 3.3%; seats by party - MSzP 190, Fidesz 141, KDNP 23, SzDSz 20, MDF 11, independent 1

Judicial branch

Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)

Political parties and leaders

Alliance of Free Democrats or SzDSz [Janos KOKA]; Christian Democratic Peoples Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN]; Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN, chairman]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSzP [Ferenc GYURCSANY]

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador April H. FOLEY
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

Economy - Hungary:

Economy overview

Hungary has made the transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, with a per capita income nearly two-thirds that of the EU-25 average. Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and acceded to the EU in May 2004. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms are widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $60 billion since 1989. Hungary issues investment-grade sovereign debt. International observers, however, have expressed concerns over Hungarys fiscal and current account deficits. Inflation has declined from 14% in 1998 to 3.7% in 2006. Unemployment has persisted above 6%. Hungarys labor force participation rate of 57% is one of the lowest in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Germany is by far Hungarys largest economic partner. Policy challenges include cutting the public sector deficit to 3% of GDP by 2008, from about 6.5% in 2006, and tackling a persistent trade deficit. The current government has announced and begun to implement an austerity program designed to address these issues, leading to eventual adoption of the euro.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$175.2 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$113.2 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

3.9% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$17,600 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 3.1%
industry: 32.1%
services: 64.8% (2006 est.)

Labor force

4.2 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 5.5%
industry: 33.3%
services: 61.2% (2003)

Unemployment rate

7.4% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

8.6% (1993 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 22.2% (2002)

Distribution of family income gini index

26.9 (2002)

Inflation rate consumer prices

3.7% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

23.4% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $48.73 billion
expenditures: $59.62 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

68.6% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products

Industries

mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles

Industrial production growth rate

9.5% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

31.83 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

37.1 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

6.3 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

13.8 billion kWh (2004)

Oil production

47,530 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil consumption

132,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

58,380 bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports

150,000 bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves

102.5 million bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production

2.963 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

14.46 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

11.42 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

34.26 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

-$8.392 billion (2006 est.)

Exports

$67.99 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

machinery and equipment 61.1%, other manufactures 28.7%, food products 6.5%, raw materials 2%, fuels and electricity 1.6% (2003)

Exports partners

Germany 29.5%, Italy 5.6%, Austria 5%, France 5%, UK 4.5%, Romania 4.2%, Poland 4% (2006)

Imports

$69.75 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.7%, fuels and electricity 7.7%, food products 3.1%, raw materials 2.0% (2003)

Imports partners

Germany 27.2%, Russia 8.4%, China 7.1%, Austria 6.2%, France 4.7%, Italy 4.5%, Netherlands 4.3%, Poland 4.2% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$21.05 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$107.3 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$3.4 billion in available EU structural adjustment and cohesion funds (2004-06)

Currency code

forint (HUF)

Exchange rates

forints per US dollar - 210.39 (2006), 199.58 (2005), 202.75 (2004), 224.31 (2003), 257.89 (2002)

Communications - Hungary:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

3.35 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

9.965 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
international: country code - 36; Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals

Radio broadcast stations

AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

35 (plus 161 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code

.hu

Internet hosts

608,085 (2006)

Internet users

3.5 million (2006)

Transportation - Hungary:

Airports

46 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 20
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 26
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 10 (2006)

Heliports

5 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 4,397 km; oil 990 km; refined products 335 km (2006)

Railways

total: 8,057 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,802 km 1.435-m gauge (2,628 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge (2006)

Roadways

total: 159,568 km
paved: 70,050 km (30,874 km of interurban roads including 626 km of expressways)
unpaved: 89,518 km (2005)

Waterways

1,622 km (most on Danube River) (2007)

Ports and terminals

Budapest, Dunaujvaros, Gyor-Gonyu, Csepel, Baja, Mohacs (2003)

Military - Hungary:

Military branches

Ground Forces, Hungarian Air Force (Magyar Legiero, ML) (2006)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in June 2004; 6-month service obligation, with reserve obligation to age 50 (2006)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 2,303,116
females age 18-49: 2,265,463 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 1,780,513
females age 18-49: 1,864,580 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 63,847
females age 18-49: 61,037 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

1.75% (2005 est.)

Disputes international

bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continue in 2006 with Slovakia over Hungarys failure to complete its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EUs external border, Hungary must implement the strict Schengen border rules

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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