Haiti

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Introduction - Haiti:

Country

Haiti

Background

The native Taino Amerindians - who inhabited the island of Hispaniola when it was discovered by COLUMBUS in 1492 - were virtually annihilated by Spanish settlers within 25 years. In the early 17th century, the French established a presence on Hispaniola, and in 1697, Spain ceded to the French the western third of the island, which later became Haiti. The French colony, based on forestry and sugar-related industries, became one of the wealthiest in the Caribbean, but only through the heavy importation of African slaves and considerable environmental degradation. In the late 18th century, Haitis nearly half million slaves revolted under Toussaint LOUVERTURE. After a prolonged struggle, Haiti became the first black republic to declare its independence in 1804. The poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. After an armed rebellion led to the departure of President Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE in February 2004, an interim government took office to organize new elections under the auspices of the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH). Continued violence and technical delays prompted repeated postponements, but Haiti finally did inaugurate a democratically elected president and parliament in May of 2006.

Location - Haiti:

Location

Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of the Dominican Republic

Geographic coordinates

19 00 N, 72 25 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Area

total: 27,750 sq km
land: 27,560 sq km
water: 190 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries

total: 360 km
border countries: Dominican Republic 360 km

Coastline

1,771 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation

Climate

tropical; semiarid where mountains in east cut off trade winds

Terrain

mostly rough and mountainous

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Chaine de la Selle 2,680 m

Natural resources

bauxite, copper, calcium carbonate, gold, marble, hydropower

Land use

arable land: 28.11%
permanent crops: 11.53%
other: 60.36% (2005)

Irrigated land

920 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

lies in the middle of the hurricane belt and subject to severe storms from June to October; occasional flooding and earthquakes; periodic droughts

Environment current issues

extensive deforestation (much of the remaining forested land is being cleared for agriculture and used as fuel); soil erosion; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Hazardous Wastes

Geography note

shares island of Hispaniola with Dominican Republic (western one-third is Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

People - Haiti:

Population

8,706,497
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 42.1% (male 1,846,175/female 1,817,082)
15-64 years: 54.4% (male 2,313,542/female 2,426,326)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 134,580/female 168,792) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 18.4 years
male: 17.9 years
female: 18.8 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

2.453% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

35.87 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

10.4 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.016 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.954 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.797 male(s)/female
total population: 0.973 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 63.83 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 68.45 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 59.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 57.03 years
male: 55.35 years
female: 58.75 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.86 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

5.6% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

280,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

24,000 (2003 est.)

Nationality

noun: Haitian(s)
adjective: Haitian

Ethnic groups

black 95%, mulatto and white 5%

Religions

Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16% (Baptist 10%, Pentecostal 4%, Adventist 1%, other 1%), none 1%, other 3%
note: roughly half of the population practices voodoo

Languages

French (official), Creole (official)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 52.9%
male: 54.8%
female: 51.2% (2003 est.)

Government - Haiti:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Haiti
conventional short form: Haiti
local long form: Republique dHaiti/Repiblik d Ayiti
local short form: Haiti/Ayiti

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Port-au-Prince
geographic coordinates: 18 32 N, 72 20 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

10 departments (departements, singular - departement); Artibonite, Centre, Grand Anse, Nippes, Nord, Nord-Est, Nord-Ouest, Ouest, Sud, Sud-Est

Independence

1 January 1804 (from France)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 January (1804)

Constitution

approved March 1987; suspended June 1988 with most articles reinstated March 1989; constitutional government ousted in a military coup in September 1991, although in October 1991, military government claimed to be observing the constitution; returned to constitutional rule in October 1994; constitution, while technically in force between 2004-2006, was not enforced; returned to constitutional rule in May 2006

Legal system

based on Roman civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Rene PREVAL (since 14 May 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Jacques-Edouard ALEXIS (since 30 May 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet chosen by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 7 February 2006 (next to be held in 2010); prime minister appointed by the president, ratified by the National Assembly
election results: Rene PREVAL elected president; percent of vote - Rene PREVAL 51%

Legislative branch

bicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale consists of the Senate (30 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms; one-third elected every two years) and the Chamber of Deputies (99 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - in reestablishing the Senate, the candidate in each department receiving the most votes in the last election serves six years, the candidate with the second most votes serves four years, and the candidate with the third most votes serves two years
elections: Senate - last held 21 April 2006 with run-off elections on 3 December 2006 (next regular election, for one third of seats, to be held in 2008); Chamber of Deputies - last held 21 April 2006 with run-off elections on 3 December 2006 (next regular election to be held in 2010)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LESPWA 11, FUSION 5, OPL 4, FL 3, LAAA 2, UNCRH 2, PONT 2, ALYANS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LESPWA 23, FUSION 17, FRN 12, OPL 10, ALYANS 10, LAAA 5, MPH 3, MOCHRENA 3, other 10; results for six other seats contested on 3 December 2006 remain unknown

Judicial branch

Supreme Court or Cour de Cassation

Political parties and leaders

Artibonite in Action or LAAA [Youri LATORTUE]; Assembly of Progressive National Democrats or RDNP [Leslie MANIGAT]; Convention for Democratic Unity or KID [Evans PAUL]; Cooperative Action to Build Haiti or KONBA [Evans LESCOUFALIR]; Democratic Alliance or ALYANS [Evans PAUL] (coalition composed of KID and PPRH); Effort and Solidarity to Create an Alternative for the People or ESKAMP [Joseph JASME]; For Us All or PONT [Jean-Marie CHERESTAL]; Front for Hope or LESPWA [Rene PREVAL] (alliance of ESKAMP, PLB, and grass-roots organizations Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, the Central Plateau Peasants Group, and Kombit Sudest); Haitian Christian Democratic Party or PDCH [Osner FEVRY and Marie-Denise CLAUDE]; Haitian Democratic and Reform Movement or MODEREH [Dany TOUSSAINT and Pierre Soncon PRINCE]; Heads Together or Tet-Ansanm [Dr. Gerard BLOT]; Independent Movement for National Reconciliation or MIRN [Luc FLEURINORD]; Justice for Peace and National Development or JPDN [Rigaud DUPLAN]; Fanmi Lavalas or FL [Rudy HERIVEAUX]; Liberal Party of Haiti or PLH [Gehy MICHEL]; Merging of Haitian Social Democratic Parties or FUSION or FPSDH [Serge GILLES] (coalition of Ayiti Capable, Haitian National Revolutionary Party, and National Congress of Democratic Movements); Mobilization for Haitis Development or MPH [Samir MOURRA]; Mobilization for National Development or MDN [Hubert de RONCERAY]; Movement for National Reconstruction or MRN [Jean Henold BUTEAU]; Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti or MIDH [Marc BAZIN]; National Christian Union for the Reconstruction of Haiti or UNCRH [Marie Claude GERMAIN]; National Front for the Reconstruction of Haiti or FRN [Guy PHILIPPE]; New Christian Movement for a New Haiti or MOCHRENA [Luc MESADIEU]; Open the Gate Party or PLB [Anes LUBIN]; Popular Party for the Renewal of Haiti or PPRH [Claude ROMAIN]; Struggling Peoples Organization or OPL [Edgard LEBLANC]; Union of Nationalist and Progressive Haitians or UNITE [Edouard FRANCISQUE]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Autonomous Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR]; Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or FOS; General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick NUMAS]; Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA; National Popular Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP; Roman Catholic Church; Protestant Federation of Haiti

International organization participation

ACCT, ACP, Caricom, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIF, OPANAL, OPCW (signatory), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Raymond JOSEPH
chancery: 2311 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4090
FAX: [1] (202) 745-7215
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico)

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Janet A. SANDERSON
embassy: 5 Harry S Truman Boulevard, Bicentenaire-Port-au-Prince
mailing address: P. O. Box 1761, Port-au-Prince
telephone: [509] 222-0200
FAX: [509] 223-9038

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms, which contains a palm tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto LUNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

Economy - Haiti:

Economy overview

Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, with 80% of the population living under the poverty line and 54% in abject poverty. Two-thirds of all Haitians depend on the agriculture sector, mainly small-scale subsistence farming, and remain vulnerable to damage from frequent natural disasters, exacerbated by the countrys widespread deforestation. A macroeconomic program developed in 2005 with the help of the International Monetary Fund helped the economy grow 1.8% in 2006, the highest growth rate since 1999. Haiti suffers from higher inflation than similar low-income countries, a lack of investment, and a severe trade deficit. In 2005, Haiti paid its arrears to the World Bank, paving the way for reengagement with the Bank. The government relies on formal international economic assistance for fiscal sustainability. In 2006, Haiti held a successful donors conference in which the total aid pledged exceeded Haitis request. Remittances are the primary source of foreign exchange, equaling nearly a quarter of GDP.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$14.79 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$5.964 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

2.5% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$1,800 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 28%
industry: 20%
services: 52% (2004 est.)

Labor force

3.6 million
note: shortage of skilled labor, unskilled labor abundant (1995)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 66%
industry: 9%
services: 25%

Unemployment rate

widespread unemployment and underemployment; more than two-thirds of the labor force do not have formal jobs (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line

80% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate consumer prices

14.4% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

27.4% of GDP (2004 est.)

Budget

revenues: $385 million
expenditures: $807.7 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

coffee, mangoes, sugarcane, rice, corn, sorghum; wood

Industries

sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, light assembly based on imported parts

Industrial production growth rate

NA%

Electricity production

536.2 million kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

498.6 million kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

0 kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

0 kWh (2004)

Oil production

0 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil consumption

11,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance

-$58.72 million (2006 est.)

Exports

$443.7 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

manufactures, coffee, oils, cocoa, mangoes

Exports partners

US 80.4%, Dominican Republic 7.7%, Canada 3% (2006)

Imports

$1.721 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials

Imports partners

US 46%, Netherlands Antilles 11.8%, China 3.4% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$123.4 million (2006 est.)

Debt external

$1.309 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$153 million (FY05 est.)

Currency code

gourde (HTG)

Exchange rates

gourdes per US dollar - 40.232 (2006), 40.449 (2005), 38.352 (2004), 42.367 (2003), 29.251 (2002)

Communications - Haiti:

Fiscal year

1 October - 30 September

Telephones main lines in use

145,300 (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

500,200 (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: domestic facilities barely adequate; international facilities slightly better
domestic: coaxial cable and microwave radio relay trunk service
international: country code - 509; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 41, FM 26, shortwave 0 (1999)

Television broadcast stations

2 (plus a cable TV service) (1997)

Internet country code

.ht

Internet hosts

6 (2006)

Internet users

650,000 (2006)

Transportation - Haiti:

Airports

12 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 7 (2006)

Roadways

total: 4,160 km
paved: 1,011 km
unpaved: 3,149 km (1999)

Ports and terminals

Cap-Haitien

Military - Haiti:

Military branches

no regular military forces - small coast guard; the regular Haitian Armed Forces (FAdH) - Army, Navy, and Air Force - have been demobilized but still exist on paper unless they are constitutionally abolished (2007)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 1,626,491
females age 18-49: 1,637,657 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 948,320
females age 18-49: 931,972 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 98,554
females age 18-49: 97,690 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

0.4% (2006)

Disputes international

since 2004, about 8,000 peacekeepers from the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) maintain civil order in Haiti; despite efforts to control illegal migration, Haitians cross into the Dominican Republic and sail to neighboring countries; Haiti claims US-administered Navassa Island

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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