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Introduction - Ghana:




Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. A long series of coups resulted in the suspension of Ghanas third constitution in 1981 and a ban on political parties. A new constitution, restoring multiparty politics, was approved in 1992. Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS, head of state since 1981, won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996, but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR, who defeated former Vice President John ATTA-MILLS in a free and fair election, succeeded him.

Location - Ghana:


Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote dIvoire and Togo

Geographic coordinates

8 00 N, 2 00 W

Map references



total: 239,460 sq km
land: 230,940 sq km
water: 8,520 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries

total: 2,094 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote dIvoire 668 km, Togo 877 km


539 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm


tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north


mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 880 m

Natural resources

gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone

Land use

arable land: 17.54%
permanent crops: 9.22%
other: 73.24% (2005)

Irrigated land

310 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds occur from January to March; droughts

Environment current issues

recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography note

Lake Volta is the worlds largest artificial lake

People - Ghana:


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 38.2% (male 4,438,308/female 4,329,293)
15-64 years: 58.2% (male 6,661,512/female 6,687,738)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 380,495/female 433,953) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 20.2 years
male: 19.9 years
female: 20.4 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

1.972% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

29.85 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

9.55 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-0.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.025 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.996 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.877 male(s)/female
total population: 1.003 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 53.56 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 48.99 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 59.12 years
male: 58.31 years
female: 59.95 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

3.89 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

3.1% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

350,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

30,000 (2003 est.)


noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and yellow fever are high risks in some locations
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis (2007)

Ethnic groups

Akan 45.3%, Mole-Dagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other tribes 1.4%, other 7.8% (2000 census)


Christian 68.8% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1%, Protestant 18.6%, Catholic 15.1%, other 11%), Muslim 15.9%, traditional 8.5%, other 0.7%, none 6.1% (2000 census)


Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other 36.1% (includes English (official)) (2000 census)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.9%
male: 66.4%
female: 49.8% (2000 census)

Government - Ghana:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana
former: Gold Coast

Government type

constitutional democracy


name: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western


6 March 1957 (from UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 March (1957)


approved 28 April 1992

Legal system

based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President John Agyekum KUFUOR (since 7 January 2001); Vice President Alhaji Aliu MAHAMA (since 7 January 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held in December 2008)
election results: John Agyekum KUFUOR reelected president in election; percent of vote - John KUFUOR 53.4%, John ATTA-MILLS 43.7%

Legislative branch

unicameral Parliament (230 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 7 December 2004 (next to be held December in 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NPP 128, NDC 94, PNC 4, CPP 3, independent 1

Judicial branch

Supreme Court

Political parties and leaders

Convention Peoples Party or CPP [Dr. Edmund DELLE]; Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Alhaji Abudu Rahman ISSAKAH]; Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Danny OFORI-ATTA]; Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [Dan LARTY]; National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI]; New Patriotic Party or NPP [Peter MAC-MANU]; Peoples National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RHAMADAN]; Reform Party [Kyeretwie OPUKU]; United Renaissance Party or URP [Charles Wayo]

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Dr. Kwame BAWUAH-EDUSEI
chancery: 1156 15th St. NW #905, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1379
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1430
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Pamela E. BRIDGEWATER
embassy: Ring Road East, Osu, Accra
mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] (21) 775-347, 775-348
FAX: [233] (21) 776-008

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a coat of arms centered in the yellow band

Economy - Ghana:

Economy overview

Well endowed with natural resources, Ghana has roughly twice the per capita output of the poorest countries in West Africa. Even so, Ghana remains heavily dependent on international financial and technical assistance. Gold, timber, and cocoa production are major sources of foreign exchange. The domestic economy continues to revolve around subsistence agriculture, which accounts for 37% of GDP and employs 60% of the work force, mainly small landholders. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, but was included in a G-8 debt relief program decided upon at the Gleneagles Summit in July 2005. Priorities under its current $38 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF) include tighter monetary and fiscal policies, accelerated privatization, and improvement of social services. Receipts from the gold sector helped sustain GDP growth in 2006 along with record high prices for Ghanas largest cocoa crop to date. Ghana received a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) grant in 2006, which aims to assist in transforming Ghanas agricultural export sector.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$60 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$10.21 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

6% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$2,700 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 37.3%
industry: 25.3%
services: 37.5% (2006 est.)

Labor force

10.87 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 60%
industry: 15%
services: 25% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate

20% (1997 est.)

Population below poverty line

31.4% (1992 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 2.2%
highest 10%: 30.1% (1999)

Distribution of family income gini index

30 (1999)

Inflation rate consumer prices

10.9% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

29% of GDP (2006 est.)


revenues: $3.616 billion
expenditures: $3.947 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

38.6% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

cocoa, rice, coffee, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber


mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building

Industrial production growth rate

3.8% (2000 est.)

Electricity production

6.489 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

7.095 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

900 million kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

1.96 billion kWh (2004)

Oil production

7,477 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil consumption

44,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

16.51 million bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

23.79 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

-$219 million (2006 est.)


$3.286 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds

Exports partners

Netherlands 11.2%, UK 8.6%, US 6.7%, Spain 5.7%, Belgium 5.2%, France 4.4% (2006)


$5.666 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs

Imports partners

Nigeria 16.4%, China 12.8%, UK 5.6%, Belgium 4.7%, US 4.6%, Brazil 4.3%, South Africa 4.1%, France 4% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$2.098 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$3.546 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$6.9 billion (1999)

Currency code

cedi (GHC)

Exchange rates

cedis per US dollar - 9,174.8 (2006), 9,072.5 (2005), 9,004.6 (2004), 8,677.4 (2003), 7,932.7 (2002)

Communications - Ghana:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

356,400 (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

5.207 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: poor to fair system; Internet accessible; many rural communities not yet connected; expansion of services is underway
domestic: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed
international: country code - 233; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia

Radio broadcast stations

AM 0, FM 49, shortwave 3 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

10 (2001)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

380 (2006)

Internet users

609,800 (2006)

Transportation - Ghana:


12 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 2 (2006)


oil 13 km; refined products 316 km (2006)


total: 953 km
narrow gauge: 953 km 1.067-m gauge (2006)


total: 42,623 km
paved: 3,267 km
unpaved: 39,356 km (2004)


1,293 km
note: 168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta (2007)

Merchant marine

total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 6,308 GRT/9,418 DWT
by type: cargo 1, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 2
foreign-owned: 1 (Brazil 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Takoradi, Tema

Military - Ghana:

Military branches

Ghanaian Army, Ghanaian Navy, Ghanaian Air Force (2007)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory and volunteer military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 4,808,451
females age 18-49: 4,762,459 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 3,011,081
females age 18-49: 2,991,551 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 251,056
females age 18-49: 247,777 (2005 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 38,684 (Liberia), 14,136 (Togo) (2006)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

0.8% (2006 est.)

Disputes international

Ghana struggles to accommodate returning nationals who worked in the cocoa plantations and escaped fighting in Cote dIvoire

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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