Germany

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Introduction - Germany:
CountryGermany
BackgroundAs Europes largest economy and second most populous nation, Germany is a key member of the continents economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR). The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.
Location - Germany:
LocationCentral Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Geographic coordinates51 00 N, 9 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 357,021 sq km
land: 349,223 sq km
water: 7,798 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than Montana
Land boundariestotal: 3,621 km
border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km
Coastline2,389 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Terrainlowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Elevation extremeslowest point: Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m
highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m
Natural resourcescoal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land
Land usearable land: 33.13%
permanent crops: 0.6%
other: 66.27% (2005)
Irrigated land4,850 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsflooding
Environment current issuesemissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EUs Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive
Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notestrategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea
People - Germany:
Population82,400,996 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 13.9% (male 5,894,724/female 5,590,373)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 27,811,357/female 26,790,222)
65 years and over: 19.8% (male 6,771,972/female 9,542,348) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 43 years
male: 41.8 years
female: 44.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate-0.033% (2007 est.)
Birth rate8.2 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate10.71 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate2.18 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.038 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.966 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.08 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.51 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 78.95 years
male: 75.96 years
female: 82.11 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate1.4 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.1% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids43,000 (2001 est.)
Hiv aids deathsless than 1,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: German(s)
adjective: German
Ethnic groupsGerman 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)
ReligionsProtestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%
LanguagesGerman
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
People notesecond most populous country in Europe after Russia
Government - Germany:
Country nameconventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form: Germany
local long form: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form: Deutschland
former: German Empire, German Republic, German Reich
Government typefederal republic
Capitalname: Berlin
geographic coordinates: 52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat)
Independence18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991
National holidayUnity Day, 3 October (1990)
Constitution23 May 1949, known as Basic Law; became constitution of the united Germany 3 October 1990
Legal systemcivil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Horst KOEHLER (since 1 July 2004)
head of government: Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet: Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor
elections: president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Assembly and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held 23 May 2004 (next to be held 23 May 2009); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Assembly for a four-year term; Bundestag election last held 22 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2009)
election results: Horst KOEHLER elected president; received 604 votes of the Federal Convention against 589 for Gesine SCHWAN; Angela MERKEL elected chancellor; vote by Federal Assembly 397 to 202 with 12 abstentions
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Federal Assembly or Bundestag (614 seats; elected by popular vote under a system combining direct and proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain proportional representation and caucus recognition; to serve four-year terms) and the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments are directly represented by votes; each has three to six votes depending on population and are required to vote as a block)
elections: Federal Assembly - last held on 18 September 2005 (next to be held in September 2009); note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
election results: Federal Assembly - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 35.2%, SPD 34.3%, FDP 9.8%, Left 8.7%, Greens 8.1%, other 3.9%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 225, SPD 222, FDP 61, Left 53, Greens 51, and independents 2
Judicial branchFederal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (half the judges are elected by the Bundestag and half by the Bundesrat)
Political parties and leadersAlliance 90/Greens [Claudia ROTH and Reinhard BUETIKOFER]; Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]; Christian Social Union or CSU [Edmund STOIBER]; Free Democratic Party or FDP [Guido WESTERWELLE]; Left Party.PDS (Linkspartei.PDS) [Lothar BISKY]; note - a merger with the Electoral Alternative-Work and Social Justice or WASG [Klaus ERNST] is planned for summer 2007; Social Democratic Party or SPD [Kurt BECK]
Political pressure groups and leadersbusiness associations and employers organizations; religious, trade unions, immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
International organization participationAfDB, Arctic Council (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 5, G- 7, G- 8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (nonregional), WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Klaus SCHARIOTH
chancery: 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 298-4000
FAX: [1] (202) 298-4249
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador William R. TIMKEN, Jr.
embassy: Neustaedtische Kirchstrasse 4-5, 10117 Berlin; note - a new embassy will be built near the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin; ground was broken in October 2004 and completion is scheduled for 2008
mailing address: PSC 120, Box 1000, APO AE 09265
telephone: [49] (030) 8305-0
FAX: [49] (030) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general: Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold
Economy - Germany:
Economy overviewGermanys affluent and technologically powerful economy - the fifth largest in the world in PPP terms - showed considerable improvement in 2006 with 2.2% growth. After a long period of stagnation with an average growth rate of 0.7% between 2001-05 and chronically high unemployment, stronger growth has led to a considerable fall in unemployment to about 7% at the end of 2006. Among the most important reasons for Germanys high unemployment during the past decade were macroeconomic stagnation, the declining level of investment in plant and equipment, company restructuring, flat domestic consumption, structural rigidities in the labor market, lack of competition in the service sector, and high interest rates. The modernization and integration of the eastern German economy continues to be a costly long-term process, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $80 billion. The former government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER launched a comprehensive set of reforms of labor market and welfare-related institutions. The current government of Chancellor Angela MERKEL has initiated other reform measures, such as a gradual increase in the mandatory retirement age from 65 to 67 and measures to increase female participation in the labor market. Germanys aging population, combined with high chronic unemployment, has pushed social security outlays to a level exceeding contributions, but higher government revenues from the cyclical upturn in 2006 reduced Germanys budget deficit to within the EUs 3% debt limit. Corporate restructuring and growing capital markets are setting the foundations that could help Germany meet the long-term challenges of European economic integration and globalization.
Gdp purchasing power parity $2.63 trillion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $2.872 trillion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate2.7% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $31,900 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 0.9%
industry: 29.1%
services: 70% (2006 est.)
Labor force43.66 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 2.8%
industry: 33.4%
services: 63.8% (1999)
Unemployment rate7.1%
note: this is the International Labor Organizations estimated rate for international comparisons; Germanys Federal Employment Office estimated a seasonally adjusted rate of 10.8% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line11% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.1% (1997)
Distribution of family income gini index28.3 (2000)
Inflation rate consumer prices 1.7% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 17.3% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $1.277 trillion
expenditures: $1.344 trillion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt66.8% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productspotatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry
Industriesamong the worlds largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles
Industrial production growth rate4.4% (2006 est.)
Electricity production566.9 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption524.6 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports50.8 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity imports48.2 billion kWh (2004)
Oil production167,400 bbl/day (2004)
Oil consumption2.65 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil exports518,700 bbl/day (2004)
Oil imports2.953 million bbl/day (2004)
Oil proved reserves394.4 million bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas production19.9 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas consumption102 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas exports8.81 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports90.11 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves279.1 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance$134.8 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$1.133 trillion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesmachinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles
Exports partnersFrance 9.7%, US 8.6%, UK 7.3%, Italy 6.7%, Netherlands 6.2%, Belgium 5.5%, Austria 5.5%, Spain 4.7% (2006)
Imports$916.4 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals
Imports partnersNetherlands 11.7%, France 8.7%, Belgium 7.6%, UK 5.9%, China 5.9%, Italy 5.5%, US 5.1%, Austria 4.3%, Russia 4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$48.76 billion (August 2006 est.)
Economic aid donorODA, $5.6 billion (1998)
Debt external$3.904 trillion (30 June 2006)
Currency code euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rateseuros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)
Communications - Germany:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use54.2 million (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular84.3 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: Germany has one of the worlds most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
domestic: Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
international: country code - 49; Germanys international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2001)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 51, FM 787, shortwave 4 (1998)
Television broadcast stations373 (plus 8,042 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code.de
Internet hosts11.859 million (2006)
Internet users38.6 million (2006)
Transportation - Germany:
Airports554 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 332
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 54
1,524 to 2,437 m: 58
914 to 1,523 m: 72
under 914 m: 135 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 222
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 33
under 914 m: 185 (2006)
Heliports32 (2006)
Pipelinescondensate 37 km; gas 25,035 km; oil 3,546 km; refined products 3,827 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 48,215 km
standard gauge: 47,962 km 1.435-m gauge (20,278 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 229 km 1.000-m gauge (16 km electrified); 24 km 0.750-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 231,581 km
paved: 231,581 km (includes 12,200 km of expressways) (2005)
Waterways7,467 km
note: Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea (2006)
Merchant marinetotal: 394 ships (1000 GRT or over) 11,017,754 GRT/13,091,194 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 60, chemical tanker 13, container 273, liquefied gas 3, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 25, petroleum tanker 10, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 4 (Finland 2, Italy 1, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries: 2,491 (Antigua and Barbuda 858, Australia 3, Bahamas 22, Belize 3, Bermuda 21, Brazil 7, Bulgaria 1, Burma 5, Canada 3, Cayman Islands 13, Cyprus 214, Denmark 13, Dominica 1, French Southern and Antarctic Lands 2, Georgia 1, Gibraltar 108, Guyana 1, Hong Kong 6, Indonesia 1, Ireland 2, Isle of Man 56, Jamaica 3, Liberia 587, Luxembourg 10, Malaysia 2, Malta 64, Marshall Islands 194, Morocco 2, Netherlands 56, Netherlands Antilles 60, NZ 1, Panama 35, Portugal 17, Russia 2, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8, Samoa 1, Singapore 9, Spain 12, Sri Lanka 5, Sweden 3, Turkey 1, UK 76, US 2) (2006)
Ports and terminalsBremen, Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Duisburg, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Mainz, Rostock, Wilhemshaven
Military - Germany:
Military branchesFederal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer), Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm), Air Force (Luftwaffe), Joint Service Support Command (Streitkraeftebasis), Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst) (2006)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age (conscripts serve a 9-month tour of compulsory military service) (2004)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 18,917,537
females age 18-49: 17,913,113 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 15,258,931
females age 18-49: 14,443,412 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 497,048
females age 18-49: 470,537 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp1.5% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalnone
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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