Finland

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Introduction - Finland:

Country

Finland

Background

Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries, and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and resist invasions by the Soviet Union - albeit with some loss of territory. In the subsequent half century, the Finns made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. A member of the European Union since 1995, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.

Location - Finland:

Location

Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

Geographic coordinates

64 00 N, 26 00 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 338,145 sq km
land: 304,473 sq km
water: 33,672 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries

total: 2,681 km
border countries: Norway 727 km, Sweden 614 km, Russia 1,340 km

Coastline

1,250 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

cold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain

mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

Natural resources

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Land use

arable land: 6.54%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 93.44% (2005)

Irrigated land

640 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

NA

Environment current issues

air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

People - Finland:

Population

5,238,460 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16.9% (male 449,548/female 433,253)
15-64 years: 66.7% (male 1,768,996/female 1,727,143)
65 years and over: 16.4% (male 344,798/female 514,722) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 41.6 years
male: 40 years
female: 43.1 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.127% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

10.42 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

9.93 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.024 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.958 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 3.52 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 3.84 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 78.66 years
male: 75.15 years
female: 82.31 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.73 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

less than 0.1% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

1,500 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality

noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups

Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.7%, Russian 0.4%, Estonian 0.2%, Roma (Gypsy) 0.2%, Sami 0.1%

Religions

Lutheran Church of Finland 84.2%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other Christian 1.1%, other 0.1%, none 13.5% (2003)

Languages

Finnish 92% (official), Swedish 5.6% (official), other 2.4% (small Sami- and Russian-speaking minorities) (2003)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)

Government - Finland:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local long form: Suomen tasavalta/Republiken Finland
local short form: Suomi/Finland

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Helsinki
geographic coordinates: 60 10 N, 24 56 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani

Independence

6 December 1917 (from Russia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Constitution

1 March 2000

Legal system

civil law system based on Swedish law; the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Matti VANHANEN (since 24 June 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Jyrki KATAINEN (since 19 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2012); the president appoints the prime minister and deputy prime minister from the majority party or the majority coalition after parliamentary elections and the parliament must approve the appointment; Prime Minister VANHANEN reelected 17 April 2007
election results: percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 46.3%, Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 24.1%, Matti Vanhanen (Kesk) 18.6%, Heidi HAUTALA (VIHR) 3.5%; a runoff election between HALONEN and NIINISTO was held 29 January 2006 - HALONEN 51.8%, NIINISTO 48.2%; Matti VANHANEN relected prime minister; election results 121-71
note: government coalition - Kesk, SDP, and SFP

Legislative branch

unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 18 March 2007 (next to be held March 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - Kesk 23.1%, Kok 22.3%, SDP 21.4%, VAS 8.8%, VIHR 8.5%, KD 4.9%, SFP 4.5%, True Finns 4.1%, other 3.4%; seats by party - Kesk 51, Kok 50, SDP 45, VAS 17, VIHR 15, SFP 9, KD 7, True Finns 5, other 1

Judicial branch

Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders

Center Party or Kesk [Matti VANHANEN]; Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN]; Green Party or VIHR [Tarja CRONBERG]; Left Alliance or VAS [Martti KORHONEN] (composed of Peoples Democratic League and Democratic Alternative); National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Jyrki KATAINEN]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eero HEINALUOMA]; Swedish Peoples Party or SFP [Stefan WALLIN]; True Finns

International organization participation

AfDB, Arctic Council, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Pekka LINTU
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Marilyn WARE
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, 00140 Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 616250
FAX: [358] (9) 6162 5800

Flag description

white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

Economy - Finland:

Economy overview

Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important; exports equal two-fifths of GDP. Finland excels in high-tech exports, e.g., mobile phones. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. High unemployment remains a persistent problem.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$176.4 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$199 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

5.5% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$33,700 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 30.3%
services: 67% (2006 est.)

Labor force

2.62 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture and forestry 4.4%, industry 17.5%, construction 6%, commerce 22%, finance, insurance, and business services 12%, transport and communications 8%, public services 30.2%

Unemployment rate

7% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 4.2%
highest 10%: 21.6% (1991)

Distribution of family income gini index

26.9 (2000)

Inflation rate consumer prices

1.7% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

18.9% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $105.6 billion
expenditures: $101 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

37.7% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish

Industries

metals and metal products, electronics, machinery and scientific instruments, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing

Industrial production growth rate

3% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

81.6 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

80.79 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

6.8 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

11.7 billion kWh (2004)

Oil production

9,105 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil consumption

220,400 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

118,300 bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports

333,400 bbl/day (2004)

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

4.86 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

4.866 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance

$8.749 billion (2006 est.)

Exports

$84.72 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp (1999)

Exports partners

Germany 11.3%, Sweden 10.5%, Russia 10.1%, UK 6.5%, US 6.5%, Netherlands 5.1% (2006)

Imports

$71.69 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains

Imports partners

Germany 15.6%, Russia 14%, Sweden 13.7%, Netherlands 6.6%, China 5.4%, UK 4.7%, Denmark 4.5% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$6.561 billion (August 2006 est.)

Economic aid donor

ODA, $850,536,746.4905 (2005)

Debt external

$251.9 billion (30 June 2006)

Currency code

euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Exchange rates

euros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)

Communications - Finland:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

1.92 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

5.67 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: digital fiber-optic fixed-line network and an extensive cellular network provide domestic needs
international: country code - 358; 1 submarine cable (Finland Estonia Connection); satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999)

Internet country code

.fi; note - the ICANN has assigned the ccTLD of .ax to the Aland Islands

Internet hosts

1.634 million (2006)

Internet users

2.925 million (2006)

Transportation - Finland:

Airports

148 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 76
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 14 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 72
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 67 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 694 km (2006)

Railways

total: 5,741 km
broad gauge: 5,741 km 1.524-m gauge (2,619 km electrified) (2006)

Roadways

total: 78,189 km
paved: 50,633 km (includes 653 km of expressways)
unpaved: 27,556 km (2006)

Waterways

7,842 km
note: includes Saimaa Canal system of 3,577 km; southern part leased from Russia (2006)

Merchant marine

total: 87 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,250,600 GRT/952,072 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 22, chemical tanker 6, container 1, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 20, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 25
foreign-owned: 3 (Norway 1, Russia 1, UK 1)
registered in other countries: 48 (Bahamas 8, Germany 2, Gibraltar 3, Luxembourg 4, Marshall Islands 2, Netherlands 13, Norway 4, Sweden 11, UK 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Hamina, Hanko, Helsinki, Kotka, Naantali, Pori, Porvoo, Raahe, Rauma, Turku

Military - Finland:

Military branches

Finnish Defense Forces (FDF): Army, Navy (includes coastal defense forces), Air Force (Suomen Ilmavoimat) (2006)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (October 2004)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 1,121,275
females age 18-49: 1,076,684 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 913,617
females age 18-49: 875,689 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 32,040
females age 18-49: 30,519 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

2% (2005 est.)

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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