Equatorial Guinea

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Introduction - Equatorial Guinea:
CountryEquatorial Guinea
BackgroundEquatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule. This tiny country, composed of a mainland portion plus five inhabited islands, is one of the smallest on the African continent. President Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO has ruled the country since 1979 when he seized power in a coup. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, the 1996 and 2002 presidential elections - as well as the 1999 and 2004 legislative elections - were widely seen as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has discouraged political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade has become Sub-Saharan Africas third largest oil exporter. Despite the countrys economic windfall from oil production resulting in a massive increase in government revenue in recent years, there have been few improvements in the populations living standards.
Location - Equatorial Guinea:
LocationWestern Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon
Geographic coordinates2 00 N, 10 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 28,051 sq km
land: 28,051 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 539 km
border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km
Coastline296 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; always hot, humid
Terraincoastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic
Elevation extremeslowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay
Land usearable land: 4.63%
permanent crops: 3.57%
other: 91.8% (2005)
Irrigated landNA
Natural hazardsviolent windstorms, flash floods
Environment current issuestap water is not potable; deforestation
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography noteinsular and continental regions widely separated
People - Equatorial Guinea:
Population551,201 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 41.5% (male 114,816/female 113,688)
15-64 years: 54.8% (male 145,740/female 156,097)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 8,957/female 11,903) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.8 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 19.4 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate2.015% (2007 est.)
Birth rate35.16 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate15.01 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.934 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.752 male(s)/female
total population: 0.957 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 87.15 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 93.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 80.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 49.51 years
male: 48.11 years
female: 50.95 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate4.48 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate3.4% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids5,900 (2001 est.)
Hiv aids deaths370 (2001 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2007)
Ethnic groupsFang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)
Religionsnominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices
LanguagesSpanish 67.6% (official), other 32.4% (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) (1994 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.7%
male: 93.3%
female: 78.4% (2003 est.)
Government - Equatorial Guinea:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee equatoriale
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee equatoriale
former: Spanish Guinea
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Malabo
geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas
Independence12 October 1968 (from Spain)
National holidayIndependence Day, 12 October (1968)
Constitutionapproved by national referendum 17 November 1991; amended January 1995
Legal systempartly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)
head of government: Prime Minister Ricardo Mangue Obama NFUBEA (since 14 August 2006); First Deputy Prime Minister Mercelino Oyono NTUTUMU (since 15 June 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 15 December 2002 (next to be held in December 2009); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO 97.1%, Celestino Bonifacio BACALE 2.2%; elections marred by widespread fraud
Legislative branchunicameral House of Peoples Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (100 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 98, CPDS 2
note: Parliament has little power since the constitution vests all executive authority in the president
Judicial branchSupreme Tribunal
Political parties and leadersConvergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido MIKO Abogo]; Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE (ruling party) [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]; Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Miguel Esono EMAN]; Popular Union or UP
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Purificacion ANGUE ONDO
chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700
FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
embassy: adjacent to the golf course at the base of Mont Febe; note - relocated embassy is opened for limited functions; inquiries should continue to be directed to the US Embassy in Yaounde, Cameroon
mailing address: B.P. 817, Yaounde, Cameroon; US Embassy Yaounde, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [237] 220 15 00
FAX: [237] 220 16 20
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)
Economy - Equatorial Guinea:
Economy overviewThe discovery and exploitation of large oil reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth in recent years. Forestry, farming, and fishing are also major components of GDP. Subsistence farming predominates. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect of the rural economy under successive regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led growth (the government has stated its intention to reinvest some oil revenue into agriculture). A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993, because of corruption and mismanagement. No longer eligible for concessional financing because of large oil revenues, the government has been trying to agree on a shadow fiscal management program with the World Bank and IMF. Government officials and their family members own most businesses. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Growth remained strong in 2006, led by oil. Equatorial Guinea now has the fourth highest per capita income in the world, after Luxembourg, Bermuda, and Jersey.
Gdp purchasing power parity $25.69 billion (2005 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $7.644 billion (2005 est.)
Gdp real growth rate18.6% (2005 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $50,200 (2005 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 2.8%
industry: 92.6%
services: 4.5% (2006 est.)
Labor forceNA
Unemployment rate30% (1998 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate consumer prices 5.2% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 34.1% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $2.752 billion
expenditures: $1.424 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt4.7% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscoffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber
Industriespetroleum, fishing, sawmilling, natural gas
Industrial production growth rate30% (2002 est.)
Electricity production26 million kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption24.18 million kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production420,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil consumption1,220 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves12 million bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas production100 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption100 million cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance$175 million (2006 est.)
Exports$8.961 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiespetroleum, methanol, timber, cocoa
Exports partnersChina 31.1%, US 22.4%, Spain 12.7%, Taiwan 7.4%, Portugal 6.1%, Brazil 4.8% (2006)
Imports$2.543 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiespetroleum sector equipment, other equipment
Imports partnersUS 40.1%, Spain 10%, Cote dIvoire 8.4%, France 6.5%, UK 6.1%, Italy 5.3% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$3.235 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$289 million (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$NA
Currency code Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Exchange ratesCommunaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 522.4 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)
Communications - Equatorial Guinea:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use10,000 (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular96,900 (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: poor system with adequate government services
domestic: NA
international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 0, FM 3, shortwave 5 (2001)
Television broadcast stations1 (2001)
Internet country code.gq
Internet hosts19 (2006)
Internet users8,000 (2006)
Transportation - Equatorial Guinea:
Airports4 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Pipelinescondensate 46 km; condensate/gas 5 km; gas 47 km; oil 31 km (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 2,880 km (1999)
Merchant marinetotal: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 1,745 GRT/3,434 DWT
by type: cargo 1 (2006)
Ports and terminalsMalabo
Military - Equatorial Guinea:
Military branchesNational Guard (Army, with Coast Guard (Navy) and Air Wing) (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 104,563
females age 18-49: 109,923 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 56,462
females age 18-49: 59,260 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp0.1% (2006 est.)
Disputes internationalin 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delay final delimitation; UN urges Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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