Equatorial Guinea

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Introduction - Equatorial Guinea:


Equatorial Guinea


Equatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule. This tiny country, composed of a mainland portion plus five inhabited islands, is one of the smallest on the African continent. President Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO has ruled the country since 1979 when he seized power in a coup. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, the 1996 and 2002 presidential elections - as well as the 1999 and 2004 legislative elections - were widely seen as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has discouraged political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade has become Sub-Saharan Africas third largest oil exporter. Despite the countrys economic windfall from oil production resulting in a massive increase in government revenue in recent years, there have been few improvements in the populations living standards.

Location - Equatorial Guinea:


Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates

2 00 N, 10 00 E

Map references



total: 28,051 sq km
land: 28,051 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries

total: 539 km
border countries: Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km


296 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; always hot, humid


coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay

Land use

arable land: 4.63%
permanent crops: 3.57%
other: 91.8% (2005)

Irrigated land


Natural hazards

violent windstorms, flash floods

Environment current issues

tap water is not potable; deforestation

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

insular and continental regions widely separated

People - Equatorial Guinea:


551,201 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 41.5% (male 114,816/female 113,688)
15-64 years: 54.8% (male 145,740/female 156,097)
65 years and over: 3.8% (male 8,957/female 11,903) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 18.8 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 19.4 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

2.015% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

35.16 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

15.01 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.934 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.752 male(s)/female
total population: 0.957 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 87.15 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 93.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 80.95 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 49.51 years
male: 48.11 years
female: 50.95 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

4.48 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

3.4% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

5,900 (2001 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

370 (2001 est.)


noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria (2007)

Ethnic groups

Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)


nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices


Spanish 67.6% (official), other 32.4% (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) (1994 census)


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 85.7%
male: 93.3%
female: 78.4% (2003 est.)

Government - Equatorial Guinea:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee equatoriale
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee equatoriale
former: Spanish Guinea

Government type



name: Malabo
geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas


12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 12 October (1968)


approved by national referendum 17 November 1991; amended January 1995

Legal system

partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)
head of government: Prime Minister Ricardo Mangue Obama NFUBEA (since 14 August 2006); First Deputy Prime Minister Mercelino Oyono NTUTUMU (since 15 June 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held 15 December 2002 (next to be held in December 2009); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO 97.1%, Celestino Bonifacio BACALE 2.2%; elections marred by widespread fraud

Legislative branch

unicameral House of Peoples Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (100 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 98, CPDS 2
note: Parliament has little power since the constitution vests all executive authority in the president

Judicial branch

Supreme Tribunal

Political parties and leaders

Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido MIKO Abogo]; Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE (ruling party) [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO]; Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Miguel Esono EMAN]; Popular Union or UP

Political pressure groups and leaders


International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Purificacion ANGUE ONDO
chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700
FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Donald C. JOHNSON
embassy: adjacent to the golf course at the base of Mont Febe; note - relocated embassy is opened for limited functions; inquiries should continue to be directed to the US Embassy in Yaounde, Cameroon
mailing address: B.P. 817, Yaounde, Cameroon; US Embassy Yaounde, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [237] 220 15 00
FAX: [237] 220 16 20

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)

Economy - Equatorial Guinea:

Economy overview

The discovery and exploitation of large oil reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth in recent years. Forestry, farming, and fishing are also major components of GDP. Subsistence farming predominates. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect of the rural economy under successive regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led growth (the government has stated its intention to reinvest some oil revenue into agriculture). A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993, because of corruption and mismanagement. No longer eligible for concessional financing because of large oil revenues, the government has been trying to agree on a shadow fiscal management program with the World Bank and IMF. Government officials and their family members own most businesses. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium, iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Growth remained strong in 2006, led by oil. Equatorial Guinea now has the fourth highest per capita income in the world, after Luxembourg, Bermuda, and Jersey.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$25.69 billion (2005 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$7.644 billion (2005 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

18.6% (2005 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$50,200 (2005 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 2.8%
industry: 92.6%
services: 4.5% (2006 est.)

Labor force


Unemployment rate

30% (1998 est.)

Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate consumer prices

5.2% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

34.1% of GDP (2006 est.)


revenues: $2.752 billion
expenditures: $1.424 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

4.7% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber


petroleum, fishing, sawmilling, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate

30% (2002 est.)

Electricity production

26 million kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

24.18 million kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

0 kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

0 kWh (2004)

Oil production

420,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

1,220 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

12 million bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production

100 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

100 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

$175 million (2006 est.)


$8.961 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

petroleum, methanol, timber, cocoa

Exports partners

China 31.1%, US 22.4%, Spain 12.7%, Taiwan 7.4%, Portugal 6.1%, Brazil 4.8% (2006)


$2.543 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

petroleum sector equipment, other equipment

Imports partners

US 40.1%, Spain 10%, Cote dIvoire 8.4%, France 6.5%, UK 6.1%, Italy 5.3% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$3.235 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$289 million (2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient


Currency code

Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States

Exchange rates

Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XAF) per US dollar - 522.4 (2006), 527.47 (2005), 528.29 (2004), 581.2 (2003), 696.99 (2002)

Communications - Equatorial Guinea:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

10,000 (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

96,900 (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: poor system with adequate government services
domestic: NA
international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 0, FM 3, shortwave 5 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

1 (2001)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

19 (2006)

Internet users

8,000 (2006)

Transportation - Equatorial Guinea:


4 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)


condensate 46 km; condensate/gas 5 km; gas 47 km; oil 31 km (2006)


total: 2,880 km (1999)

Merchant marine

total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 1,745 GRT/3,434 DWT
by type: cargo 1 (2006)

Ports and terminals


Military - Equatorial Guinea:

Military branches

National Guard (Army, with Coast Guard (Navy) and Air Wing) (2007)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age (est.) (2004)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 104,563
females age 18-49: 109,923 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 56,462
females age 18-49: 59,260 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

0.1% (2006 est.)

Disputes international

in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delay final delimitation; UN urges Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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