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Introduction - Egypt:
BackgroundThe regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the worlds great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypts government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.
Location - Egypt:
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates27 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Area comparativeslightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 2,665 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Coastline2,450 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatedesert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrainvast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremeslowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc
Land usearable land: 2.92%
permanent crops: 0.5%
other: 96.58% (2005)
Irrigated land34,220 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment current issuesagricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notecontrols Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees
People - Egypt:
Population80,335,036 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 32.2% (male 13,234,428/female 12,631,681)
15-64 years: 63.2% (male 25,688,703/female 25,082,200)
65 years and over: 4.6% (male 1,576,376/female 2,121,648) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 24.2 years
male: 23.9 years
female: 24.6 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.721% (2007 est.)
Birth rate22.53 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate5.11 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.024 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.743 male(s)/female
total population: 1.017 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 29.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 31.22 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 71.57 years
male: 69.04 years
female: 74.22 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate2.77 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rateless than 0.1% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids12,000 (2001 est.)
Hiv aids deaths700 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groupsEgyptian 98%, Berber, Nubian, Bedouin, and Beja 1%, Greek, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1%
ReligionsMuslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%
LanguagesArabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.4%
male: 83%
female: 59.4% (2005 est.)
Government - Egypt:
Country nameconventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in April; ends last Thursday in September
Administrative divisions26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Ismailiyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, As Suways, Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Said, Dumyat, Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina, Suhaj
Independence28 February 1922 (from UK)
National holidayRevolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980 and 25 May 2005
Legal systembased on Islamic and civil law (particularly Napoleonic codes); judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branchchief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term (no term limits); note - a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the Peoples Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 September 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 September 2005; next election scheduled for 2011
election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9%
Legislative branchbicameral system consists of the Peoples Assembly or Majlis al-Shab (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura that functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half of the elected members)
elections: Peoples Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 7 and 20 November, 1 December 2005;(next to be held November-December 2010); Advisory Council - last held May-June 2007 (next to be held May-June 2010)
election results: Peoples Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 311, NWP 6, Tagammu 2, Tomorrow Party 1, independents 112 (12 seats to be determined by rerun elections, 10 seats appointed by President); Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 84, Tagammu 1, independents 3
Judicial branchSupreme Constitutional Court
Political parties and leadersNational Democratic Party or NDP (governing party) [Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Mahmoud ABAZA]; Tomorrow Party [Naji AL-GHATRIFI]
note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government
Political pressure groups and leadersdespite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes Hosni MUBARAKs potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr.
embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone: [20] (2) 797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 797-3200
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag and similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band
Economy - Egypt:
Economy overviewOccupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. In the last 30 years, the government has reformed the highly centralized economy it inherited from President NASSER. In 2005, Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF reduced personal and corporate tax rates, reduced energy subsidies, and privatized several enterprises. The stock market boomed, and GDP grew about 5% per year in 2005-06. Despite these achievements, the government has failed to raise living standards for the average Egyptian, and has had to continue providing subsidies for basic necessities. The subsidies have contributed to a growing budget deficit - more than 10% of GDP each year - and represent a significant drain on the economy. Foreign direct investment remains low. To achieve higher GDP growth the NAZIF government will need to continue its aggressive pursuit of reform, especially in the energy sector. Egypts export sectors - particularly natural gas - have bright prospects.
Gdp purchasing power parity $334.4 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $85.37 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate6.8% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $4,200 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 14.7%
industry: 35.5%
services: 49.8% (2006 est.)
Labor force21.8 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 32%
industry: 17%
services: 51% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate10.3% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line20% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 25% (1995)
Distribution of family income gini index34.4 (2001)
Inflation rate consumer prices 6.5% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 19.2% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $21.32 billion
expenditures: $31.83 billion; including capital expenditures of $2.7 billion (2006 est.)
Public debt102.9% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Industriestextiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate5.1% (2006 est.)
Electricity production91.72 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption84.49 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports1 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity imports200 million kWh (2004)
Oil production700,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil consumption590,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exports152,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves3.7 billion bbl (1 January 2005 est.)
Natural gas production32.56 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption31.46 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports1.1 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves1.657 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance$2.697 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$24.22 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiescrude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals
Exports partnersItaly 12.2%, US 11.4%, Spain 8.6%, UK 5.6%, France 5.4%, Syria 5.2%, Saudi Arabia 4.4%, Germany 4.2% (2006)
Imports$35.86 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports partnersUS 11.4%, China 8.2%, Germany 6.4%, Italy 5.4%, Saudi Arabia 5%, France 4.6% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$26.3 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$29.59 billion (30 June 2006 est.)
Economic aid recipientODA, $1.12 billion (2002)
Currency code Egyptian pound (EGP)
Exchange ratesEgyptian pounds per US dollar - 5.725 (2006), 5.78 (2005), 6.1962 (2004), 5.8509 (2003), 4.4997 (2002)
Communications - Egypt:
Fiscal year1 July - 30 June
Telephones main lines in use10.808 million (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular18.001 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available
domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
international: country code - 20; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (1998)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999)
Television broadcast stations98 (September 1995)
Internet country
Internet hosts2,254 (2006)
Internet users6 million (2006)
Transportation - Egypt:
Airports88 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 72
over 3,047 m: 13
2,438 to 3,047 m: 38
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
under 914 m: 5 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 16
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 7 (2006)
Heliports3 (2006)
Pipelinescondensate 464 km; condensate/gas 94 km; gas 6,021 km; liquid petroleum gas 897 km; oil 5,120 km; oil/gas/water 36 km; refined products 897 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 5,063 km
standard gauge: 5,063 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 92,370 km
paved: 74,820 km
unpaved: 17,550 km (2004)
Waterways3,500 km
note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2006)
Merchant marinetotal: 76 ships (1000 GRT or over) 987,524 GRT/1,467,139 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 14, cargo 33, container 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 13, roll on/roll off 9
foreign-owned: 9 (Denmark 1, Greece 6, Lebanon 2)
registered in other countries: 49 (Bolivia 2, Cambodia 8, Georgia 8, Honduras 4, North Korea 2, Panama 16, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Sao Tome and Principe 1, Saudi Arabia 2, Sierra Leone 1, Thailand 1, unknown 1) (2006)
Ports and terminalsAlexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Suez, Zeit
Military - Egypt:
Military branchesArmy, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command
Military service age and obligation18 years of age for conscript military service; service obligation 12-36 months followed by a 9-year reserve obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 18,347,560
females age 18-49: 17,683,904 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 15,540,234
females age 18-49: 14,939,378 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 802,920
females age 18-49: 764,176 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 60,000 - 80,000 (Iraq), 70,255 (Palestinian Territories), 13,446 (Sudan) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp3.4% (2005 est.)
Trafficking in personscurrent situation: Egypt is a transit country for women trafficked from Eastern Europe to Israel for the purpose of sexual exploitation; these women generally arrive as tourists and are subsequently trafficked through the Sinai Desert by Bedouin tribes; men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia are believed to be trafficked through the Sinai Desert to Israel and Europe for labor exploitation; some Egyptian children from rural areas are trafficked within the country to work as domestic servants or laborers in the agriculture industry
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Egypt is placed on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to show evidence of increasing efforts to address trafficking over the past year, particularly in the area of law enforcement
Disputes internationalwhile Sudan retains claim to the Halaib Triangle north of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, both states withdrew their military presence in the 1990s and Egypt has invested in and effectively administers the area; Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip to deter terrorist, smuggling, and other illegal activities; Egypt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify themselves as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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