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Introduction - Djibouti:
BackgroundThe French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afars minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 following the conclusion of a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djiboutis first multi-party presidential elections resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH; he was re-elected to a second and final term in 2005. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the mouth of the Red Sea and serves as an important transshipment location for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands. The present leadership favors close ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country, but is also developing stronger ties with the US. Djibouti hosts the only US military base in sub-Saharan Africa and is a front-line state in the global war on terrorism.
Location - Djibouti:
LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
Geographic coordinates11 30 N, 43 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 23,000 sq km
land: 22,980 sq km
water: 20 sq km
Area comparativeslightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land boundariestotal: 516 km
border countries: Eritrea 109 km, Ethiopia 349 km, Somalia 58 km
Coastline314 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatedesert; torrid, dry
Terraincoastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Elevation extremeslowest point: Lac Assal -155 m
highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m
Natural resourcesgeothermal areas, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum
Land usearable land: 0.04%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.96% (2005)
Irrigated land10 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsearthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods
Environment current issuesinadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notestrategic location near worlds busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa
People - Djibouti:
Population496,374 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 43.4% (male 107,957/female 107,233)
15-64 years: 53.2% (male 137,111/female 126,952)
65 years and over: 3.4% (male 8,626/female 8,495) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 18.2 years
male: 18.6 years
female: 17.7 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.984% (2007 est.)
Birth rate39.07 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate19.23 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.007 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.015 male(s)/female
total population: 1.045 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 100.77 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 108.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 92.96 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 43.25 years
male: 41.88 years
female: 44.65 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate5.23 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate2.9% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids9,100 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths690 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified among birds in this country or surrounding region; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2007)
Ethnic groupsSomali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)
ReligionsMuslim 94%, Christian 6%
LanguagesFrench (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.9%
male: 78%
female: 58.4% (2003 est.)
Government - Djibouti:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
local long form: Republique de Djibouti/Jumhuriyat Jibuti
local short form: Djibouti/Jibuti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Djibouti
geographic coordinates: 11 35 N, 43 09 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions6 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjourah
Independence27 June 1977 (from France)
National holidayIndependence Day, 27 June (1977)
Constitutionmultiparty constitution approved by referendum 4 September 1992
Legal systembased on French civil law system, traditional practices, and Islamic law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Mohamed Dileita DILEITA (since 4 March 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 April 2005 (next to be held by April 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 100%
Legislative branchunicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)
elections: last held 10 January 2003 (next to be held in January 2008)
election results: percent of vote - RPP 62.2%, FRUD 36.9%; seats - RPP 65; note - RPP (the ruling party) dominated the election
Judicial branchSupreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leadersDemocratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh]; Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH]; Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM]; Front pour la Restauration de lUnite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD]; Peoples Progress Assembly or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party); Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH]; Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Ahmed Dini AHMED]; Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ
Political pressure groups and leadersUnion for Presidential Majority UMP (coalition includes RPP, FRUD, PPSD and PND); Union for Democratic Changeover or UAD (opposition coalition includes ARD, MRDD, UDJ, and PDD) [Ahmed Dini AHMED]
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE Oudine
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador W. Stuart SYMINGTON
embassy: Plateau du Serpent, Boulevard Marechal Joffre, Djibouti
mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone: [253] 35 39 95
FAX: [253] 35 39 40
Flag descriptiontwo equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed star in the center
Economy - Djibouti:
Economy overviewThe economy is based on service activities connected with the countrys strategic location and status as a free trade zone in northeast Africa. Two-thirds of the inhabitants live in the capital city; the remainder are mostly nomadic herders. Scanty rainfall limits crop production to fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. Djibouti has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of 50% continues to be a major problem. While inflation is not a concern, due to the fixed tie of the Djiboutian franc to the US dollar, the artificially high value of the Djiboutian franc adversely affects Djiboutis balance of payments. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% over the last seven years because of recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees). Faced with a multitude of economic difficulties, the government has fallen in arrears on long-term external debt and has been struggling to meet the stipulations of foreign aid donors.
Gdp purchasing power parity $1.878 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $702 million (2005 est.)
Gdp real growth rate3.2% (2005 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $1,000 (2005 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 17.9%
industry: 22.5%
services: 59.6% (2003 est.)
Labor force282,000 (2000)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate50% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line50% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate consumer prices 3% (2005 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $135 million
expenditures: $182 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Agriculture productsfruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels, animal hides
Industriesconstruction, agricultural processing
Industrial production growth rate3% (1996 est.)
Electricity production200 million kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption186 million kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil consumption11,900 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Exports$250 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports commoditiesreexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
Exports partnersSomalia 66.3%, Ethiopia 21.5%, Yemen 3.4% (2006)
Imports$987 million f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports commoditiesfoods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
Imports partnersSaudi Arabia 21.4%, India 17.9%, China 11%, Ethiopia 4.6% (2006)
Debt external$394 million (2004 est.)
Economic aid recipient$64.1 million (2004)
Currency code Djiboutian franc (DJF)
Exchange ratesDjiboutian francs per US dollar - 174.75 (2006), 177.72 (2005), 177.72 (2004), 177.72 (2003), 177.72 (2002)
Communications - Djibouti:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use10,800 (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular44,100 (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country
domestic: microwave radio relay network
international: country code - 253; submarine cable to Jiddah, Suez, Sicily, Marseille, Colombo, and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Arabsat; Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network
Radio broadcast stationsAM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations1 (2001)
Internet country
Internet hosts1,540 (2006)
Internet users11,000 (2006)
Transportation - Djibouti:
Airports13 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 3 (2006)
Railwaystotal: 100 km (Djibouti segment of the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway)
narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge
note: railway under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 2,890 km
paved: 364 km
unpaved: 2,526 km (1999)
Merchant marinetotal: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 1,369 GRT/3,030 DWT
by type: cargo 1 (2006)
Ports and terminalsDjibouti
Military - Djibouti:
Military branchesDjibouti National Army (includes Navy and Air Force)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age (est.); no conscription (2001)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 95,328
females age 18-49: 87,795 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 46,020
females age 18-49: 42,181 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 9,828 (Somalia) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp3.8% (2006)
Disputes internationalDjibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with Somaliland leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia; thousands of Somali refugees await repatriation in UNHCR camps in Djibouti
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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