Croatia

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Introduction - Croatia:

Country

Croatia

Background

The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.

Location - Croatia:

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

45 10 N, 15 30 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 56,542 sq km
land: 56,414 sq km
water: 128 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries

total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia 241 km, Montenegro 25 km, Slovenia 670 km

Coastline

5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast

Terrain

geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m

Natural resources

oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower

Land use

arable land: 25.82%
permanent crops: 2.19%
other: 71.99% (2005)

Irrigated land

110 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes

Environment current issues

air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography note

controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits; the vast majority of Adriatic Sea islands lie off the coast of Croatia - some 1,200 islands, islets, ridges, and rocks

People - Croatia:

Population

4,493,312 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 16% (male 368,639/female 349,703)
15-64 years: 67.1% (male 1,499,354/female 1,515,932)
65 years and over: 16.9% (male 292,526/female 467,158) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 40.6 years
male: 38.6 years
female: 42.3 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.035% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

9.63 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

11.57 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.054 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.989 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.626 male(s)/female
total population: 0.926 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 74.9 years
male: 71.26 years
female: 78.75 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.41 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

less than 0.1% (2001 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

200 (2001 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 10 (2001 est.)

Nationality

noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian

Ethnic groups

Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma) (2001 census)

Religions

Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, other Christian 0.4%, Muslim 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.9%, none 5.2% (2001 census)

Languages

Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German) (2001 census)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.1%
male: 99.3%
female: 97.1% (2001 census)

Government - Croatia:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska
former: Peoples Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia

Government type

presidential/parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Zagreb
geographic coordinates: 45 48 N, 16 00 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija, Istarska Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija, Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija, Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija, Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija, Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija, Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija, Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka Zupanija

Independence

25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)

National holiday

Independence Day, 8 October (1991); note - 25 June 1991 was the day the Croatian Parliament voted for independence; following a three-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, Parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia

Constitution

adopted on 22 December 1990; revised 2000, 2001

Legal system

based on Austro-Hungarian law system with Communist law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)

Executive branch

chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivo SANADER (since 9 December 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Jadranka KOSOR (since 23 December 2003) and Damir POLANCEC (since 15 February 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 16 January 2005 (next to be held in January 2010); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the Assembly
election results: Stjepan MESIC reelected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC 66%, Jadranka KOSOR 34% in the second round

Legislative branch

unicameral Assembly or Sabor (152 seats; members elected from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 23 November 2003 (next to be held in November 2007)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; number of seats by party - HDZ 63, SDP 34, HNS 11, HSS 9, HSP 7, IDS 4, HDSSB 3, HSLS 3, HSU 3, SDSS 3, other 12
note: minority government coalition - HDZ, DC, HSLS, HSU, SDSS; note - the Democratic Center party or DC withdrew from the government in February 2006

Judicial branch

Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly

Political parties and leaders

Croatian Bloc or HB [Ivic PASALIC]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Anto KOVACEVIC]; Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Branimir GLAVAS]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Josip FRISCIC]; Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Vladimir JORDAN]; Croatian Peoples Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC] (in 2005 party merged with Libra to become Croatian Peoples Party-Liberal Democrats or NS-LD); Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Djurdja ADLESIC]; Croatian True Revival Party or HIP [Miroslav TUDJMAN]; Democratic Centre or DC [Vesna SKARE-OZBOLT]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

ACCT (observer), BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOGIP, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Neven JURICA
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. BRADTKE
embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson Street, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue superimposed by the Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)

Economy - Croatia:

Economy overview

Once one of the wealthiest of the Yugoslav republics, Croatias economy suffered badly during the 1991-95 war as output collapsed and the country missed the early waves of investment in Central and Eastern Europe that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Since 2000, however, Croatias economic fortunes have begun to improve slowly, with moderate but steady GDP growth between 4% and 5% led by a rebound in tourism and credit-driven consumer spending. Inflation over the same period has remained tame and the currency, the kuna, stable. Nevertheless, difficult problems still remain, including a stubbornly high unemployment rate, a growing trade deficit and uneven regional development. The state retains a large role in the economy, as privatization efforts often meet stiff public and political resistance. While macroeconomic stabilization has largely been achieved, structural reforms lag because of deep resistance on the part of the public and lack of strong support from politicians. The EU accession process should accelerate fiscal and structural reform.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$60.26 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$37.42 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

4.6% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$13,400 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 6.8%
industry: 30.9%
services: 62.3% (2006 est.)

Labor force

1.72 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 32.8%
services: 64.5% (2004)

Unemployment rate

17.2% official rate; labor force surveys indicate unemployment around 14% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

11% (2003)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24.5% (2003 est.)

Distribution of family income gini index

29 (2001)

Inflation rate consumer prices

3.4% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

28.5% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $17.78 billion
expenditures: $19.06 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

56.2% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products

Industries

chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

5% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

12.95 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

16.53 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

600 million kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

5.086 billion kWh (2004)

Oil production

20,500 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

93,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

75.28 million bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production

1.64 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

2.75 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

1.11 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

24.64 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.892 billion (2006 est.)

Exports

$11.17 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels

Exports partners

Italy 22%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 13.8%, Germany 9.7%, Slovenia 9%, Austria 7.4% (2006)

Imports

$21.79 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery, transport and electrical equipment; chemicals, fuels and lubricants; foodstuffs

Imports partners

Italy 16.7%, Germany 15.1%, Russia 8.9%, Austria 6.2%, Slovenia 5%, China 4.7% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$11.07 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$33.09 billion (30 June 2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

ODA, $166.5 million (2002)

Currency code

kuna (HRK)

Exchange rates

kuna per US dollar - 5.8625 (2006), 5.9473 (2005), 6.0358 (2004), 6.7035 (2003), 7.8687 (2002)

Communications - Croatia:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

1.832 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

4.47 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: NA
domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of 2 fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece

Radio broadcast stations

AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)

Television broadcast stations

36 (plus 321 repeaters) (1995)

Internet country code

.hr

Internet hosts

18,825 (2006)

Internet users

1.576 million (2006)

Transportation - Croatia:

Airports

68 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 23
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 9 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 37 (2006)

Heliports

2 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 1,340 km; oil 583 km (2006)

Railways

total: 2,726 km
standard gauge: 2,726 km 1.435-m gauge (1,199 km electrified) (2006)

Roadways

total: 28,344 km
paved: 24,186 km (includes 742 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,158 km (2004)

Waterways

785 km (2007)

Merchant marine

total: 72 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,079,286 GRT/1,724,698 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 22, cargo 11, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 27, petroleum tanker 5, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3
registered in other countries: 36 (Belize 1, Cyprus 2, Liberia 7, Malta 10, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Omisalj, Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Vukovar (on Danube)

Military - Croatia:

Military branches

Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Oruzane Snage Republike Hrvatske, OSRH), consists of five major commands directly subordinate to a General Staff: Ground Forces (Hrvatska Kopnena Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM), Air Force, Joint Education and Training Command, Logistics Command; Military Police Force supports each of the three Croatian military forces (2007)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary service; 6-month conscript service obligation; full conversion to professional military service by 2010 (2006)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 1,005,058
females age 18-49: 1,008,511 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 725,914
females age 18-49: 823,611 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 29,020
females age 18-49: 27,897 (2005 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 4,200-7,000 (Croats and Serbs displaced in 1992-95 war) (2006)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

2.39% (2005 est.)

Disputes international

dispute remains with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small disputed sections of the boundary related to maritime access that hinders ratification of the 1999 border agreement; the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains un-ratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatias 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a European Union peripheral state, neighboring Slovenia must conform to the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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