Cape Verde

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Introduction - Cape Verde:
CountryCape Verde
BackgroundThe uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; Cape Verde subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues to exhibit one of Africas most stable democratic governments. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result, Cape Verdes expatriate population is greater than its domestic one. Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.
Location - Cape Verde:
LocationWestern Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
Geographic coordinates16 00 N, 24 00 W
Map referencesPolitical Map of the World
Areatotal: 4,033 sq km
land: 4,033 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparativeslightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries0 km
Coastline965 km
Maritime claimsmeasured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetemperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic
Terrainsteep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Elevation extremeslowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)
Natural resourcessalt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum
Land usearable land: 11.41%
permanent crops: 0.74%
other: 87.85% (2005)
Irrigated land30 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsprolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active
Environment current issuessoil erosion; deforestation due to demand for wood used as fuel; water shortages; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notestrategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
People - Cape Verde:
Population423,613 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 36.9% (male 78,971/female 77,524)
15-64 years: 56.4% (male 116,751/female 122,065)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 10,423/female 17,879) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 20.2 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 21.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate0.606% (2007 est.)
Birth rate24.4 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-11.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.019 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.956 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.583 male(s)/female
total population: 0.948 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 45.27 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 50.31 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 71.02 years
male: 67.69 years
female: 74.44 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate3.28 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.035% (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids775 (2001)
Hiv aids deaths225 (as of 2001)
Nationalitynoun: Cape Verdean(s)
adjective: Cape Verdean
Ethnic groupsCreole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
ReligionsRoman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs), Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)
LanguagesPortuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.6%
male: 85.8%
female: 69.2% (2003 est.)
Government - Cape Verde:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
conventional short form: Cape Verde
local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
local short form: Cabo Verde
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Praia
geographic coordinates: 14 55 N, 23 31 W
time difference: UTC-1 (4 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao Miguel, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 5 July (1975)
Constitution25 September 1992; a major revision on 23 November 1995 substantially increased the powers of the president; a 1999 revision created the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)
Legal systembased on the legal system of Portugal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Pedro Verona PIRES (since 22 March 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 12 February 2006 (next to be held in February 2011); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president
election results: Pedro PIRES reelected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 51.2%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 48.8%
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 52.3%, MPD 44%, UCID 2.7%; seats by party - PAICV 41, MPD 29, UCID 2
Judicial branchSupreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia
Political parties and leadersAfrican Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]; Democratic and Independent Cape Verdean Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Jose BRITO
chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
consulate(s) general: Boston
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Roger D. PIERCE
embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo n6, Praia
mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
telephone: [238] 2-60-89-00
FAX: [238] 2-61-13-55
Flag descriptionfive unequal horizontal bands; the top-most band of blue - equal to one half the width of the flag - is followed by three bands of white, red, and white, each equal to 1/12 of the width, and a bottom stripe of blue equal to one quarter of the flag width; a circle of 10, yellow, five-pointed stars, each representing one of the islands, is centered on the red stripe and positioned 3/8 of the length of the flag from the hoist side
Economy - Cape Verde:
Economy overviewThis island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for 66% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of food production in GDP in 2004 was only 12%, of which fishing accounted for 1.5%. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%. Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Future prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, the encouragement of tourism, remittances, and the momentum of the governments development program. Cape Verde has been exploring European Union membership in recent years.
Gdp purchasing power parity $3.129 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $1.128 billion (2005 est.)
Gdp real growth rate5.5% (2005 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $6,000 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 12.1%
industry: 21.9%
services: 66% (2004 est.)
Labor force120,600 (1990)
Unemployment rate21% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line30% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate consumer prices 4.7% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 25.5% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $324.6 million
expenditures: $370.4 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Agriculture productsbananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
Industriesfood and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
Industrial production growth rateNA%
Electricity production44 million kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption40.92 million kWh (2004)
Electricity exports0 kWh (2004)
Electricity imports0 kWh (2004)
Oil production0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil consumption1,150 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves0 bbl
Natural gas production0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption0 cu m (2004 est.)
Current account balance-$44.43 million (2006 est.)
Exports$96.71 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesfuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides
Exports partnersSpain 45.2%, Portugal 22.9%, Netherlands 13.3%, Morocco 4.9% (2006)
Imports$495.1 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesfoodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
Imports partnersPortugal 40.8%, Netherlands 10.5%, Spain 6.2%, Italy 5.5%, Cote dIvoire 5.2%, Brazil 5.1% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$166.4 million (2006 est.)
Debt external$325 million (2002)
Economic aid recipient$136 million (1999)
Currency code Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)
Exchange ratesCape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar - 87.946 (2006), 88.67 (2005), 88.808 (2004), 97.703 (2003), 117.168 (2002)
Communications - Cape Verde:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use71,600 (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular108,900 (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: effective system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995
domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT); fiber optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998
international: country code - 238; 2 coaxial submarine cables; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2001)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 0, FM 22 (plus 12 repeaters), shortwave 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations1 (plus 7 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country
Internet hosts234 (2006)
Internet users29,000 (2005)
Transportation - Cape Verde:
Airports7 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 7
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 1,350 km
paved: 932 km
unpaved: 418 km (2000)
Merchant marinetotal: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 12,300 GRT/7,726 DWT
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 4
foreign-owned: 2 (Spain 1, UK 1) (2006)
Ports and terminalsMindelo, Praia, Tarrafal
Military - Cape Verde:
Military branchesPeoples Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP): Army, Coast Guard (includes maritime air wing) (2007)
Military service age and obligation18 years of age (est.) for selective compulsory military service; 14-month conscript service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 84,641
females age 18-49: 87,310 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 65,614
females age 18-49: 73,662 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp0.7% (2005)
Disputes internationalnone
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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