Brazil

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Introduction - Brazil:
CountryBrazil
BackgroundFollowing three centuries under the rule of Portugal, Brazil became an independent nation in 1822 and a republic in 1889. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil overcame more than half a century of military intervention in the governance of the country when in 1985 the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South Americas leading economic power and a regional leader. Highly unequal income distribution remains a pressing problem.
Location - Brazil:
LocationEastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
Geographic coordinates10 00 S, 55 00 W
Map referencesSouth America
Areatotal: 8,511,965 sq km
land: 8,456,510 sq km
water: 55,455 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Area comparativeslightly smaller than the US
Land boundariestotal: 16,885 km
border countries: Argentina 1,261 km, Bolivia 3,423 km, Colombia 1,644 km, French Guiana 730.4 km, Guyana 1,606 km, Paraguay 1,365 km, Peru 2,995 km, Suriname 593 km, Uruguay 1,068 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Coastline7,491 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climatemostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrainmostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Elevation extremeslowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m
Natural resourcesbauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Land usearable land: 6.93%
permanent crops: 0.89%
other: 92.18% (2005)
Irrigated land29,200 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south
Environment current issuesdeforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Environment international agreementsparty to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelargest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador
People - Brazil:
Population190,010,647
note: Brazil conducted a census in August 2000, which reported a population of 169,799,170; that figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the US Census Bureau, and is close to the implied underenumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census; estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.3% (male 24,554,254/female 23,613,027)
15-64 years: 68.4% (male 64,437,140/female 65,523,447)
65 years and over: 6.3% (male 4,880,562/female 7,002,217) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 28.6 years
male: 27.9 years
female: 29.4 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.008% (2007 est.)
Birth rate16.3 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate6.19 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-0.03 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.983 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.697 male(s)/female
total population: 0.976 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 27.62 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 31.27 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.24 years
male: 68.3 years
female: 76.38 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate1.88 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.7% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids660,000 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deaths15,000 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian
Ethnic groupswhite 53.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 38.5%, black 6.2%, other (includes Japanese, Arab, Amerindian) 0.9%, unspecified 0.7% (2000 census)
ReligionsRoman Catholic (nominal) 73.6%, Protestant 15.4%, Spiritualist 1.3%, Bantu/voodoo 0.3%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.2%, none 7.4% (2000 census)
LanguagesPortuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.6%
male: 88.4%
female: 88.8% (2004 est.)
Government - Brazil:
Country nameconventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil
Government typefederal republic
Capitalname: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil is divided into four time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands
Administrative divisions26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins
Independence7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
National holidayIndependence Day, 7 September (1822)
Constitution5 October 1988
Legal systembased on Roman codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffragevoluntary between 16 and 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory over 18 and under 70 years of age; note - military conscripts do not vote
Executive branchchief of state: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (since 1 January 2003); Vice President Jose ALENCAR (since 1 January 2003)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held 1 October 2006 with runoff 29 October 2006 (next to be held 3 October 2010 and, if necessary, 31 October 2010)
election results: Luiz Inacio LULA DA SILVA (PT) reelected president - 60.83%, Geraldo ALCKMIN (PSDB) 39.17%
Legislative branchbicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members from each state and federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third and two-thirds elected every four years, alternately) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held 1 October 2006 for one-third of the Senate (next to be held in October 2010 for two-thirds of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held 1 October 2006 (next to be held in October 2010)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PFL 6, PSDB 5, PMDB 4, PTB 3, PT 2, PDT 1, PSB 1, PL 1, PPS 1, PRTB 1, PP 1, PCdoB 1; total seats following election - PFL 18, PMDB 15, PSDB 15, PT 11, PDT 5, PTB 4, PSB 3, PL 3, PCdoB 2, PRB 2, PPS 1, PRTB 1, PP 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 89, PT 83, PFL 65, PSDB 65, PP 42, PSB 27, PDT 24, PL 23, PTB 22, PPS 21, PCdoB 13, PV 13, PSC 9, other 17
Judicial branchSupreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed for life by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life); note - though appointed for life, judges, like all federal employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70
Political parties and leadersBrazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Federal Deputy Michel TEMER]; Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Roberto JEFFERSON]; Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]; Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Vitor Paulo Araujo DOS SANTOS]; Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Senator Tasso JEREISSATI]; Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Governor Eduardo Henrique Accioly CAMPOS]; Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]; Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]; Democratic Socialist Party or PSD [Luis Marques MENDES]; Freedom and Socialism Party or PSOL [Heloisa HELENA]; Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz de Franca PENNA]; Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS; Liberal Front Party or PFL (now known as the Democrats Party or DEM); Liberal Party or PL; Partido Municipalista Renovador or PMR [Natal Wellington Rodrigues FURUCHO]; Party of the Republic or PR [Sergio TAMER]; Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Federal Deputy Roberto FREIRE]; Progressive Party or PP [Federal Deputy Pedro CORREA]; Social Christian Party or PSC; Workers Party or PT [Ricardo Jose Ribeiro BERZOINI]
Political pressure groups and leadersLandless Workers Movement; labor unions and federations; large farmers associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church
International organization participationAfDB, BIS, CAN (associate), CPLP, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur, MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNMOVIC, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Antonio de Aguiar PATRIOTA
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2700
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Clifford M. SOBEL
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 3500, APO AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s): Recife
Flag descriptiongreen with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars (one for each state and the Federal District) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)
Economy - Brazil:
Economy overviewCharacterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Brazils economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. From 2001-03 real wages fell and Brazils economy grew, on average only 2.2% per year, as the country absorbed a series of domestic and international economic shocks. That Brazil absorbed these shocks without financial collapse is a tribute to the resiliency of the Brazilian economy and the economic program put in place by former President CARDOSO and strengthened by President LULA DA SILVA. Since 2004, Brazil has enjoyed continued growth that yielded increases in employment and real wages. The three pillars of the economic program are a floating exchange rate, an inflation-targeting regime, and tight fiscal policy, initially reinforced by a series of IMF programs. The currency depreciated sharply in 2001 and 2002, which contributed to a dramatic current account adjustment; from 2003 to 2006, Brazil ran record trade surpluses and recorded its first current account surpluses since 1992. Productivity gains - particularly in agriculture - also contributed to the surge in exports. While economic management has been good, there remain important economic vulnerabilities. The most significant are debt-related: the governments largely domestic debt increased steadily from 1994 to 2003 - straining government finances - before falling as a percentage of GDP beginning in 2003. Brazil improved its debt profile in 2006 by shifting its debt burden toward real denominated and domestically held instruments. LULA DA SILVA restated his commitment to fiscal responsibility by maintaining the countrys primary surplus during the 2006 election. Following his second inauguration, LULA DA SILVA announced a package of further economic reforms to reduce taxes and increase public investment. A major challenge will be to maintain sufficient growth to generate employment and reduce the government debt burden.
Gdp purchasing power parity $1.655 trillion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $967 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate3.7% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $8,800 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 8%
industry: 38%
services: 54% (2006 est.)
Labor force96.34 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 20%
industry: 14%
services: 66% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate9.6% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line31% (2005)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 0.7%
highest 10%: 31.27% (2002)
Distribution of family income gini index56.7 (2005)
Inflation rate consumer prices 3% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 20.2% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $244 billion
expenditures: $219.9 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (FY07 est.)
Public debt50% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscoffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef
Industriestextiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment
Industrial production growth rate3.2% (2006 est.)
Electricity production546 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity consumption415.9 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity exports7 million kWh (2004)
Electricity imports39 billion kWh; note - supplied by Paraguay (2005)
Oil production1.59 million bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil consumption2.1 million bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil exports278,400 bbl/day (2005)
Oil imports674,500 bbl/day (2004)
Oil proved reserves12.22 billion bbl (2006 est.)
Natural gas production9.66 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption17.28 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports8.07 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves306 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Current account balance$13.5 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$137.5 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiestransport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos
Exports partnersUS 17.9%, Argentina 8.6%, China 8.2%, Germany 4.1% (2006)
Imports$91.4 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
Imports partnersUS 20.4%, Argentina 8.2%, China 7.8%, Germany 7.5% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$87.27 billion (January 2007 est.)
Debt external$176.5 billion (30 November 2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$30 billion (2002)
Currency code real (BRL)
Exchange ratesreals per US dollar - 2.1761 (2006), 2.4344 (2005), 2.9251 (2004), 3.0771 (2003), 2.9208 (2002)
Communications - Brazil:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use38.8 million (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular99.919 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: good working system
domestic: extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
international: country code - 55; 3 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station
Radio broadcast stationsAM 1,365, FM 296, shortwave 161 (of which 91 are collocated with AM stations) (1999)
Television broadcast stations138 (1997)
Internet country code.br
Internet hosts6.508 million (2006)
Internet users42.6 million (2006)
Transportation - Brazil:
Airports4,276 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 714
over 3,047 m: 8
2,438 to 3,047 m: 24
1,524 to 2,437 m: 164
914 to 1,523 m: 464
under 914 m: 54 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 3,562
1,524 to 2,437 m: 81
914 to 1,523 m: 1,634
under 914 m: 1,847 (2006)
Heliports417 (2006)
Pipelinescondensate/gas 244 km; gas 11,669 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km; oil 5,212 km; refined products 4,755 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 29,295 km
broad gauge: 4,932 km 1.600-m gauge (939 km electrified)
standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
narrow gauge: 23,773 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified)
dual gauge: 396 km 1.000 m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km electrified) (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 1,751,868 km
paved: 96,353 km
unpaved: 1,655,515 km (2004)
Waterways50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2007)
Merchant marinetotal: 137 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,038,923 GRT/3,057,820 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 21, chemical tanker 8, container 8, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 47, roll on/roll off 8
foreign-owned: 15 (Chile 1, Germany 7, Norway 2, Spain 4, UK 1)
registered in other countries: 5 (Ghana 1, Liberia 3, Marshall Islands 1) (2006)
Ports and terminalsGebig, Itaqui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, San Sebasttiao, Santos, Sepetiba Terminal, Tubarao, Vitoria
Military - Brazil:
Military branchesBrazilian Army, Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil (MB), includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2007)
Military service age and obligation21-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 9 to 12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are long-service volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Womens Reserve Corps (2001)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 19-49: 45,586,036
females age 19-49: 45,728,704 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 19-49: 33,119,098
females age 19-49: 38,079,722 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 1,785,930
females age 19-49: 1,731,648 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures percent of gdp2.6% (2006 est.)
Disputes internationalunruly region at convergence of Argentina-Brazil-Paraguay borders is locus of money laundering, smuggling, arms and illegal narcotics trafficking, and fundraising for extremist organizations; uncontested dispute with Uruguay over certain islands in the Quarai/Cuareim and Invernada boundary streams and the resulting tripoint with Argentina
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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