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Introduction - Azerbaijan:
BackgroundAzerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population - was briefly independent from 1918 to 1920; it regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 600,000 internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous, and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijans undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.
Location - Azerbaijan:
LocationSouthwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia, with a small European portion north of the Caucasus range
Geographic coordinates40 30 N, 47 30 E
Map referencesAsia
Areatotal: 86,600 sq km
land: 86,100 sq km
water: 500 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the regions autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Area comparativeslightly smaller than Maine
Land boundariestotal: 2,013 km
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km est.)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatedry, semiarid steppe
Terrainlarge, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Elevation extremeslowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, bauxite
Land usearable land: 20.62%
permanent crops: 2.61%
other: 76.77% (2005)
Irrigated land14,550 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsdroughts
Environment current issueslocal scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Environment international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography noteboth the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
People - Azerbaijan:
Population8,120,247 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 25.4% (male 1,086,271/female 975,100)
15-64 years: 67.7% (male 2,695,428/female 2,799,047)
65 years and over: 7% (male 211,438/female 352,963) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 27.6 years
male: 26 years
female: 29.4 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate0.688% (2007 est.)
Birth rate17.47 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate8.35 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-2.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.114 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.963 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.599 male(s)/female
total population: 0.968 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 58.31 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 64.03 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.75 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 65.96 years
male: 61.86 years
female: 70.66 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate2.05 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rateless than 0.1% (2003 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids1,400 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deathsless than 100 (2001 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Azerbaijani(s), Azeri(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani, Azeri
Ethnic groupsAzeri 90.6%, Dagestani 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.9% (1999 census)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
ReligionsMuslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
LanguagesAzerbaijani (Azeri) 90.3%, Lezgi 2.2%, Russian 1.8%, Armenian 1.5%, other 3.3%, unspecified 1% (1999 census)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.5%
female: 98.2% (1999 census)
Government - Azerbaijan:
Country nameconventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
local short form: Azarbaycan
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Baku (Baki, Baky)
geographic coordinates: 40 23 N, 49 52 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic (muxtar respublika)
rayons: Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Astara Rayonu, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Susa Rayonu, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu
cities: Ali Bayramli Sahari, Baki Sahari, Ganca Sahari, Lankaran Sahari, Mingacevir Sahari, Naftalan Sahari, Saki Sahari, Sumqayit Sahari, Susa Sahari, Xankandi Sahari, Yevlax Sahari
autonomous republic: Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi
Independence30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holidayFounding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaijan, 28 May (1918)
Constitutionadopted 12 November 1995
Legal systembased on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Ilham ALIYEV (since 31 October 2003)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 4 November 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Abbas ABBASOV (since 10 November 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 15 October 2003 (next to be held in October 2008); prime minister and first deputy prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
election results: Ilham ALIYEV elected president; percent of vote - Ilham ALIYEV 76.8%, Isa GAMBAR 14%
Legislative branchunicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 6 November 2005 (next to be held in November 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Yeni 58, Azadliq coalition 8, CSP 2, YES 2, Motherland 2, other parties with single seats 7, independents 42, undetermined 4
Judicial branchSupreme Court
Political parties and leadersAzadliq coalition (Musavat, APF, and DPA); Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of Reform faction; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of Classic faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shovkat HACIYEVA]; Motherland Party; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; Yeni Azerbaijan Party; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLI]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Araz ALIZADE]
note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Political pressure groups and leadersSadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement; Union of Pro-Azerbaijani Forces (UPAF); Karabakh Liberation Organization
International organization participationAsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Hafiv Mir Jalal PASHAYEV
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
Consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Anne E. DERSE
embassy: 83 Azadliyg Prospecti, Baku AZ1007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, US Department of State, 7050 Baku Place, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [994] (12) 4980-335 through 337
FAX: [994] (12) 4656-671
Flag descriptionthree equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band
Economy - Azerbaijan:
Economy overviewAzerbaijans number one export is oil. Azerbaijans oil production declined through 1997, but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have committed $60 billion to long-term oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. A consortium of Western oil companies began pumping 1 million barrels a day from a large offshore field in early 2006, through a $4 billion pipeline it built from Baku to Turkeys Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. By 2010 revenues from this project will double the countrys current GDP. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. Several other obstacles impede Azerbaijans economic progress: the need for stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector, the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region, and the pervasive corruption. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance, while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijans ability to manage its oil wealth.
Gdp purchasing power parity $59.71 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $14.25 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate34.5% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $7,500 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 14.1%
industry: 45.7%
services: 40.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force5.191 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 41%
industry: 7%
services: 52% (2001)
Unemployment rate1.2% official rate (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line49% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 27.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income gini index36.5 (2001)
Inflation rate consumer prices 8% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 44.9% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $6.008 billion
expenditures: $5.804 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)
Public debt10.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productscotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Industriespetroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore; cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Industrial production growth rate50% (2006 est.)
Electricity production20.35 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity consumption20.57 billion kWh (2004)
Electricity exports510 million kWh (2004)
Electricity imports2.15 billion kWh (2004)
Oil production477,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil consumption120,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exportsNA bbl/day
Oil importsNA bbl/day
Oil proved reserves7 billion bbl (1 January 2005)
Natural gas production5.01 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption9.94 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports4.93 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves849.5 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance$2.737 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$12.51 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiesoil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs
Exports partnersItaly 30.1%, France 11.7%, Czech Republic 10.1%, Germany 7.9%, US 7.7%, UK 4.4% (2006)
Imports$5.176 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiesmachinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports partnersRussia 19.6%, UK 12.6%, Turkey 9.9%, Germany 8.7%, Singapore 6.2%, China 4.9% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$1.8 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$2.483 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipientODA, $140 million (2000 est.)
Currency code Azerbaijani manat (AZM)
Exchange ratesAzerbaijani manats per US dollar - 0.8934 (2006), 4,727.1 (2005), 4,913.48 (2004), 4,910.73 (2003), 4,860.82 (2002)
note: on 1 January 2006 Azerbaijan revalued its currency, with 5,000 old manats equal to 1 new manat
Communications - Azerbaijan:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use1.189 million (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular3.324 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 14 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002)
domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan
international: country code - 994; the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; satellite earth stations - 2 (2005)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)
Television broadcast stations2 (1997)
Internet country
Internet hosts880 (2006)
Internet users829,100 (2006)
Transportation - Azerbaijan:
Airports36 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 27
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 13
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 7 (2006)
Heliports1 (2006)
Pipelinesgas 3,190 km; oil 2,436 km (2006)
Railwaystotal: 2,122 km
broad gauge: 2,122 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 59,141 km
paved: 29,210 km
unpaved: 29,931 km (2004)
Merchant marinetotal: 84 ships (1000 GRT or over) 405,395 GRT/436,666 DWT
by type: cargo 26, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 8, petroleum tanker 43, roll on/roll off 2, specialized tanker 3
registered in other countries: 4 (Georgia 2, Malta 2) (2006)
Ports and terminalsBaku (Baki)
Military - Azerbaijan:
Military branchesArmy, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces
Military service age and obligationmen between 18 and 35 are liable for military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; length of military service is 18 months and 12 months for university graduates (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,961,973
females age 18-49: 2,033,186 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 1,314,955
females age 18-49: 1,676,408 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 82,358
females age 18-49: 78,067 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 2,800 (Russia)
IDPs: 580,000-690,000 (conflict with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp2.6% (2005 est.)
Disputes internationalArmenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia have ratified Caspian seabed delimitation treaties based on equidistance, while Iran continues to insist on an even one-fifth allocation and challenges Azerbaijans hydrocarbon exploration in disputed waters; bilateral talks continue with Turkmenistan on dividing the seabed and contested oilfields in the middle of the Caspian; Azerbaijan and Georgia continue to discuss the alignment of their boundary at certain crossing areas
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>

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