Austria

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Introduction - Austria:

Country

Austria

Background

Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austrias status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austrias independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the countrys perpetual neutrality as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Unions collapse in 1991 and Austrias entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic Monetary Union in 1999.

Location - Austria:

Location

Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia

Geographic coordinates

47 20 N, 13 20 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 83,870 sq km
land: 82,444 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries

total: 2,562 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers

Terrain

in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m

Natural resources

oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower

Land use

arable land: 16.59%
permanent crops: 0.85%
other: 82.56% (2005)

Irrigated land

40 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

landslides; avalanches; earthquakes

Environment current issues

some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere

People - Austria:

Population

8,199,783 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 15.1% (male 633,375/female 603,459)
15-64 years: 67.5% (male 2,781,291/female 2,749,539)
65 years and over: 17.5% (male 585,747/female 846,372) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 41.3 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.4 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.077% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

8.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

9.84 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

1.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.012 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.692 male(s)/female
total population: 0.953 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.54 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 79.21 years
male: 76.32 years
female: 82.26 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.37 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

0.3% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

10,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 100 (2003 est.)

Nationality

noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian

Ethnic groups

Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)

Religions

Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)

Languages

German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene,official in Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 census)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: NA
female: NA

Government - Austria:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich

Government type

federal republic

Capital

name: Vienna
geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)

Independence

976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutrality

Constitution

1920; revised 1929; reinstated 1 May 1945

Legal system

civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (since 8 July 2004)
head of government: Chancellor Alfred GUSENBAUER (SPOe) (since 11 January 2007); Vice Chancellor Wilhelm MOLTERER (OeVP) (since 11 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2010); chancellor formally chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER 47.6%
note: government coalition - SPOe and OeVP

Legislative branch

bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; members chosen by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 members according to its population; to serve a five- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held 1 October 2006 (next scheduled for the fall of 2010)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 35.3%, OeVP 34.3%, Greens 11.1%, FPOe 11.0%, BZOe 4.1%, other 4.2%; seats by party - SPOe 68, OeVP 66, Greens 21, FPOe 21, BZOe 7

Judicial branch

Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof

Political parties and leaders

Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Peter WESTENTHALER]; Austrian Peoples Party or OeVP [Wilhelm MOLTERER]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian Peoples Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human rights

International organization participation

ACCT (observer), AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Susan R. McCAW
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

Economy - Austria:

Economy overview

Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germanys. The Austrian economy also benefits greatly from strong commercial relations, especially in the banking and insurance sectors, with central, eastern, and southeastern Europe. The economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austrias access to the single European market and proximity to the new EU economies. The outgoing government has successfully pursued a comprehensive economic reform program, aimed at streamlining government and creating a more competitive business environment, further strengthening Austrias attractiveness as an investment location. It has implemented effective pension reforms; however, lower taxes in 2005-06 led to a small budget deficit in 2006. Weak domestic consumption and slow growth in Europe held the economy to growth rates below 3% in 2002-05. Due to higher growth across Europe, Austria grew 3.3 percent in 2006. To meet increased competition - especially from new EU members and Central European countries - Austria will need to continue restructuring, emphasizing knowledge-based sectors of the economy, and encouraging greater labor flexibility and greater labor participation by its aging population.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$283.8 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$310.1 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

3.3% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$34,600 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 1.8%
industry: 30.4%
services: 67.8% (2005)

Labor force

3.88 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 3%
industry: 27%
services: 70% (2005 est.)

Unemployment rate

4.9% (2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

5.9% (2004)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 22.5% (2004)

Distribution of family income gini index

31 (2002)

Inflation rate consumer prices

1.6% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

21% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $155.9 billion
expenditures: $161.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (2006 est.)

Public debt

63% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber

Industries

construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism

Industrial production growth rate

5.7% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

64.9 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity consumption

65.2 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity exports

17.73 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Electricity imports

20.4 billion kWh (2005 est.)

Oil production

25,360 bbl/day (2004)

Oil consumption

282,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

34,680 bbl/day (2004)

Oil imports

157,500 bbl/day (2005)

Oil proved reserves

62 million bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production

1.637 billion cu m (2005)

Natural gas consumption

9 billion cu m (2005)

Natural gas exports

1.324 billion cu m (2004)

Natural gas imports

9.18 billion cu m (2005)

Natural gas proved reserves

15.01 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

$5.913 billion (2006 est.)

Exports

$133.3 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs

Exports partners

Germany 31.7%, Italy 8.8%, US 5.7%, Switzerland 4.6%, France 4% (2006)

Imports

$134.3 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs

Imports partners

Germany 46.5%, Italy 6.8%, Switzerland 4.4%, Netherlands 4% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$12.72 billion (November 2006 est.)

Economic aid donor

ODA, $681 million (2004)

Debt external

$594.3 billion (October 2006 est.)

Currency code

euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries

Exchange rates

euros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)

Communications - Austria:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

3.564 million (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

9.255 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: there are 45 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available
international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSATs (very small aperture terminals) (2005)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)

Internet country code

.at

Internet hosts

2.062 million (2006)

Internet users

4.2 million (2006)

Transportation - Austria:

Airports

55 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 25
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 15 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 26 (2006)

Heliports

1 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 149 km (2006)

Railways

total: 6,383 km
standard gauge: 5,924 km 1.435-m gauge (3,772 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 371 km 1.000-m gauge; 88 km 0.760-m gauge (25 km electrified) (2006)

Roadways

total: 133,718 km
paved: 133,718 km (includes 1,677 km of expressways) (2003)

Waterways

358 km (2007)

Merchant marine

total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 34,072 GRT/44,437 DWT
by type: cargo 6, container 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Netherlands 2)
registered in other countries: 14 (Liberia 13, Malta 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna

Military - Austria:

Military branches

Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for voluntary service; service obligation 7 months of training, followed by an 8-year reserve obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 1,914,800
females age 18-49: 1,870,134 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 1,550,441
females age 18-49: 1,515,365 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 48,967
females age 18-49: 46,633 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

0.9% (2005 est.)

Disputes international

in 2006, Austrian public protests for the Czech Republic to close the Temelin nuclear power plant resulted in a parliamentary motion threatening international legal action

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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