Armenia

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Introduction - Armenia:

Country

Armenia

Background

Armenia prides itself on being the first nation to formally adopt Christianity (early 4th century). Despite periods of autonomy, over the centuries Armenia came under the sway of various empires including the Roman, Byzantine, Arab, Persian, and Ottoman. During World War I in the western portion of Armenia, Ottoman Turkey instituted a policy of forced resettlement coupled with other harsh practices that resulted in an estimated 1 million Armenian deaths. The eastern area of Armenia was ceded by the Ottomans to Russia in 1828; this portion declared its independence in 1918, but was conquered by the Soviet Red Army in 1920. Armenian leaders remain preoccupied by the long conflict with Muslim Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily Armenian-populated region, assigned to Soviet Azerbaijan in the 1920s by Moscow. Armenia and Azerbaijan began fighting over the area in 1988; the struggle escalated after both countries attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. By May 1994, when a cease-fire took hold, Armenian forces held not only Nagorno-Karabakh but also a significant portion of Azerbaijan proper. The economies of both sides have been hurt by their inability to make substantial progress toward a peaceful resolution. Turkey imposed an economic blockade on Armenia and closed the common border because of the Armenian occupation of Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas.

Location - Armenia:

Location

Southwestern Asia, east of Turkey

Geographic coordinates

40 00 N, 45 00 E

Map references

Asia

Area

total: 29,800 sq km
land: 28,400 sq km
water: 1,400 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries

total: 1,254 km
border countries: Azerbaijan-proper 566 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave 221 km, Georgia 164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

highland continental, hot summers, cold winters

Terrain

Armenian Highland with mountains; little forest land; fast flowing rivers; good soil in Aras River valley

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Debed River 400 m
highest point: Aragats Lerrnagagat 4,090 m

Natural resources

small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite

Land use

arable land: 16.78%
permanent crops: 2.01%
other: 81.21% (2005)

Irrigated land

2,860 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

occasionally severe earthquakes; droughts

Environment current issues

soil pollution from toxic chemicals such as DDT; the energy crisis of the 1990s led to deforestation when citizens scavenged for firewood; pollution of Hrazdan (Razdan) and Aras Rivers; the draining of Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan), a result of its use as a source for hydropower, threatens drinking water supplies; restart of Metsamor nuclear power plant in spite of its location in a seismically active zone

Environment international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Geography note

landlocked in the Lesser Caucasus Mountains; Sevana Lich (Lake Sevan) is the largest lake in this mountain range

People - Armenia:

Population

2,971,650 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 19.5% (male 307,610/female 271,381)
15-64 years: 69.3% (male 962,126/female 1,098,192)
65 years and over: 11.2% (male 132,705/female 199,636) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 30.8 years
male: 28.1 years
female: 33.6 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

-0.129% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

12.34 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

8.29 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-5.34 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.16 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.133 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.876 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.665 male(s)/female
total population: 0.894 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 21.69 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.69 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.91 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.12 years
male: 68.52 years
female: 76.29 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.34 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

0.1% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

2,600 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

less than 200 (2003 est.)

Nationality

noun: Armenian(s)
adjective: Armenian

Ethnic groups

Armenian 97.9%, Yezidi (Kurd) 1.3%, Russian 0.5%, other 0.3% (2001 census)

Religions

Armenian Apostolic 94.7%, other Christian 4%, Yezidi (monotheist with elements of nature worship) 1.3%

Languages

Armenian 97.7%, Yezidi 1%, Russian 0.9%, other 0.4% (2001 census)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2001 census)

Government - Armenia:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Armenia
conventional short form: Armenia
local long form: Hayastani Hanrapetutyun
local short form: Hayastan
former: Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic; Armenian Republic

Government type

republic

Capital

name: Yerevan
geographic coordinates: 40 10 N, 44 30 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

11 provinces (marzer, singular - marz); Aragatsotn, Ararat, Armavir, Gegharkunik, Kotayk, Lorri, Shirak, Syunik, Tavush, Vayots Dzor, Yerevan

Independence

21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 21 September (1991)

Constitution

adopted by nationwide referendum 5 July 1995; amendments adopted through a nationwide referendum 27 November 2005

Legal system

based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Robert KOCHARIAN (since 30 March 1998)
head of government: Prime Minister Serzh SARGSYAN (since 4 April 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 19 February and 5 March 2003 (next to be held in 2008); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed with the majority support of the National Assembly; the prime minister and Council of Ministers must resign if the National Assembly refuses to accept their program
election results: Robert KOCHARIAN reelected president; percent of vote - Robert KOCHARIAN 67.5%, Stepan DEMIRCHYAN 32.5%

Legislative branch

unicameral National Assembly (Parliament) or Azgayin Zhoghov (131 seats; members elected by popular vote, 90 members elected by party list and 41 by direct vote; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 12 May 2007 (next to be held in the spring of 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - HHK 32.8%, Prosperous Armenia 14.7%, ARF (Dashnak) 12.7%, Rule of Law 6.8%, Heritage Party 5.8%, other 27.2%; seats by party - HHK 69, Prosperous Armenia 24, ARF (Dashnak) 16, Rule of Law 9, Heritage Party 7, Dashink 1, independent 5

Judicial branch

Constitutional Court; Court of Cassation (Appeals Court)

Political parties and leaders

Agro-Industrial Party [Vladimir BADALYAN]; Armenia Party (Hayastan) [Myasnik MALKHASYAN]; Armenian National Movement or ANM [Artashes ZURABYAN]; Armenian Ramkavar Liberal Party or HRAK [Harutyun MIRZAKHANYAN, chairman]; Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnak Party) or ARF [Hrant MARKARYAN]; Dashink [Gen. Samvel Babayan]; Democratic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Heritage Party [Raffi HOVHANNISYAN]; Justice Bloc [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN] (comprised of the Democratic Party, National Democratic Party, National Democratic Union, the Peoples Party, and the Republic Party); National Democratic Party [Shavarsh KOCHARIAN]; National Democratic Union or NDU [Vazgen MANUKIAN]; National Revival Party [Albert BAZEYAN]; National Unity Party [Artashes GEGHAMYAN]; Peoples Party of Armenia [Stepan DEMIRCHYAN]; Prosperous Armenia [Gagik TSAROUKYAN]; Republic Party [Aram SARKISYAN]; Republican Party of Armenia or HHK [Serzh SARGSYAN]; Rule of Law Party [Artur BAGHDASARYAN]; Union of Constitutional Rights [Hrant KHACHATURYAN]; United Labor Party [Gurgen ARSENYAN]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Yerkrapah Union [Manvel GRIGORIAN]

International organization participation

ACCT (observer), AsDB, BSEC, CE, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Tatoul MARKARIAN
chancery: 2225 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 319-1976
FAX: [1] (202) 319-2982
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge dAffaires Anthony F. GODFREY
embassy: 1 American Ave., Yerevan 375082
mailing address: American Embassy Yerevan, US Department of State, 7020 Yerevan Place, Washington, DC 20521-7020
telephone: [374](10) 464-700
FAX: [374](10) 464-742

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, and orange

Economy - Armenia:

Economy overview

Under the old Soviet central planning system, Armenia had developed a modern industrial sector, supplying machine tools, textiles, and other manufactured goods to sister republics in exchange for raw materials and energy. Since the implosion of the USSR in December 1991, Armenia has switched to small-scale agriculture away from the large agroindustrial complexes of the Soviet era. The agricultural sector has long-term needs for more investment and updated technology. The privatization of industry has been at a slower pace, but has been given renewed emphasis by the current administration. Armenia is a food importer, and its mineral deposits (copper, gold, bauxite) are small. The ongoing conflict with Azerbaijan over the ethnic Armenian-dominated region of Nagorno-Karabakh and the breakup of the centrally directed economic system of the former Soviet Union contributed to a severe economic decline in the early 1990s. By 1994, however, the Armenian Government had launched an ambitious IMF-sponsored economic liberalization program that resulted in positive growth rates in 1995-2006. Armenia has managed to slash inflation, stabilize its currency, and privatize most small- and medium-sized enterprises. Despite strong economic growth, Armenias unemployment rate remains high. Nuclear power plants built at Metsamor eliminated the chronic energy shortages Armenia suffered in the early and mid-1990s, but those plants are under international pressure to close. Armenia is now a net energy exporter, although it does not have sufficient generating capacity to replace Metsamor. Construction of a natural gas pipeline between Iran and Armenia has been completed and it is scheduled to be commissioned by April 2007. Economic ties with Russia remain close, especially in the energy sector. The electricity distribution system was privatized in 2002 and bought by Russias RAO-UES in 2005. Armenias severe trade imbalance has been offset somewhat by international aid, remittances from Armenians working abroad, and foreign direct investment. Armenia joined the WTO in January 2003. The government made some improvements in tax and customs administration in 2005, but anti-corruption measures will be more difficult to implement. Investment in the construction and industrial sectors is expected to continue in 2007 and will help to ensure annual average real GDP growth of more than 10%.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$16.94 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$6.6 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

13.4% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$5,700 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 17.7%
industry: 42%
services: 40.3% (January-November 2006 est.)

Labor force

1.2 million (November 2006)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 45%
industry: 25%
services: 30% (2002 est.)

Unemployment rate

7.4% (November 2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

34.6% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: 1.6%
highest 10%: 41.3% (2004)

Distribution of family income gini index

41 (2004)

Inflation rate consumer prices

2.9% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

20.9% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $1.3 billion
expenditures: $1.6 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (FY07 est.)

Agriculture products

fruit (especially grapes), vegetables; livestock

Industries

diamond-processing, metal-cutting machine tools, forging-pressing machines, electric motors, tires, knitted wear, hosiery, shoes, silk fabric, chemicals, trucks, instruments, microelectronics, jewelry manufacturing, software development, food processing, brandy

Industrial production growth rate

-1.2% (2006 est.)

Electricity production

6.317 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity consumption

4.374 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity exports

1.012 billion kWh; note - exports an unknown quantity to Georgia; includes exports to Nagorno-Karabakh region in Azerbaijan (2004)

Electricity imports

260 million kWh; note - imports an unknown quantity from Iran (2004)

Oil production

0 bbl/day (2005)

Oil consumption

41,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

1.33 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

1.33 billion cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance

-$247.3 million (January-September 2006 est.)

Exports

$1.056 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

diamonds, mineral products, foodstuffs, energy

Exports partners

Germany 16.9%, Netherlands 12.6%, Belgium 12.4%, Russia 12.2%, Georgia 7.5%, Israel 6.6%, US 5.7%, Switzerland 5.2%, Iran 4.6% (2006)

Imports

$1.684 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

natural gas, petroleum, tobacco products, foodstuffs, diamonds

Imports partners

Russia 20.6%, Ukraine 7.4%, Belgium 7.2%, Turkmenistan 6.7%, Italy 5.8%, Germany 5.4%, Iran 5.4%, Israel 4.5%, Romania 4.5%, US 4.2% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$880.8 million (September 2006 est.)

Debt external

$1.16 billion (30 September 2006)

Economic aid recipient

ODA, $254 million (2004)

Currency code

dram (AMD)

Exchange rates

drams per US dollar - 414.69 (2006), 457.69 (2005), 533.45 (2004), 578.76 (2003), 573.35 (2002)

Communications - Armenia:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

594,400 (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

318,000 (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: system inadequate; now 90% privately owned and undergoing modernization and expansion
domestic: the majority of subscribers and the most modern equipment are in Yerevan (this includes paging and mobile cellular service)
international: country code - 374; Yerevan is connected to the Trans-Asia-Europe fiber-optic cable through Iran; additional international service is available by microwave radio relay and landline connections to the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States and through the Moscow international switch and by satellite to the rest of the world; satellite earth stations - 3 (2005)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 9, FM 16, shortwave 1 (2006)

Television broadcast stations

48 (private television stations alongside 2 public networks; major Russian channels widely available) (2006)

Internet country code

.am

Internet hosts

8,163 (2006)

Internet users

172,800 (2006)

Transportation - Armenia:

Airports

13 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 2,002 km (2006)

Railways

total: 839 km
broad gauge: 839 km 1.520-m gauge (828 km electrified)
note: some lines are out of service (2006)

Roadways

total: 7,633 km
paved: 7,633 km (includes 1,561 km of expressways) (2003)

Military - Armenia:

Military branches

Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Nagorno-Karabakh Self Defense Force (NKSDF), Air Force, Air Defense Force (2006)

Military service age and obligation

18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation (2006)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 722,836
females age 18-49: 795,084 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 551,938
females age 18-49: 656,493 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 31,774
females age 18-49: 31,182 (2005 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 219,324 (Azerbaijan)
IDPs: 8,400 (conflict with Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh, majority have returned home since 1994 ceasefire) (2006)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

6.5% (FY01)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Armenia is a major source and, to a lesser extent, a transit and destination country for women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation largely to the UAE and Turkey; traffickers, many of them women, route victims directly into Dubai or through Moscow; profits derived from the trafficking of Armenian victims reportedly have increased
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Armenia has failed to show evidence of increasing efforts, particularly in the areas of enforcement, trafficking-related corruption, and victim protection

Disputes international

Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and since the early 1990s, has militarily occupied 16% of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; over 800,000 mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis were driven from the occupied lands and Armenia; about 230,000 ethnic Armenians were driven from their homes in Azerbaijan into Armenia; Azerbaijan seeks transit route through Armenia to connect to Naxcivan exclave; border with Turkey remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh dispute; ethnic Armenian groups in Javakheti region of Georgia seek greater autonomy; Armenians continue to emigrate, primarily to Russia, seeking employment

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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