Antigua and Barbuda

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Introduction - Antigua and Barbuda:

Country

Antigua and Barbuda

Background

The Siboney were the first to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early settlements by the Spanish and French were succeeded by the English who formed a colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.

Location - Antigua and Barbuda:

Location

Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates

17 03 N, 61 48 W

Map references

Central America and the Caribbean

Area

total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Area comparative

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

0 km

Coastline

153 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

Climate

tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain

mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources

NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use

arable land: 18.18%
permanent crops: 4.55%
other: 77.27% (2005)

Irrigated land

NA

Natural hazards

hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment current issues

water management - a major concern because of limited natural fresh water resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a very large western harbor

People - Antigua and Barbuda:

Population

69,481 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 27.3% (male 9,647/female 9,306)
15-64 years: 69% (male 24,137/female 23,801)
65 years and over: 3.7% (male 965/female 1,625) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 30.3 years
male: 29.8 years
female: 30.8 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.527% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

16.62 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

5.31 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-6.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.037 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.014 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.594 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 18.26 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 21.99 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.36 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 72.42 years
male: 70.03 years
female: 74.94 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.23 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

NA

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

NA

Hiv aids deaths

NA

Nationality

noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups

black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)

Religions

Anglican 25.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Roman Catholic 10.4%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)

Languages

English (official), local dialects

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 85.8%
male: NA%
female: NA% (2003 est.)

Government - Antigua and Barbuda:

Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type

constitutional parliamentary democracy

Capital

name: Saint Johns
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip

Independence

1 November 1981 (from UK)

National holiday

Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)

Constitution

1 November 1981

Legal system

based on English common law

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Winston Baldwin SPENCER (since 24 March 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; governor general chosen by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch

bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held 23 March 2004 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ALP 4, UPP 13

Judicial branch

Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (based in Saint Lucia; one judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of the islands and presides over the Court of Summary Jurisdiction); member Caribbean Court of Justice

Political parties and leaders

Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Lester Bryant BIRD]; Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]; Barbuda Peoples Movement or BPM [Thomas H. FRANK]; Barbuda Peoples Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]; United Progressive Party or UPP [Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)

Political pressure groups and leaders

Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; Peoples Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation

ACP, C, Caricom, CDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ISO (subscriber), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OECS, OPANAL, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5225
consulate(s) general: Miami

Diplomatic representation from the us

the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description

red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band

Economy - Antigua and Barbuda:

Economy overview

Tourism continues to dominate the economy, accounting for more than half of GDP. Weak tourist arrival numbers since early 2000 have slowed the economy and pressed the government into a tight fiscal corner. The dual-island nations agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on income growth in the industrialized world, especially in the US, which accounts for slightly more than one-third of tourist arrivals.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$1.145 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$905 million (2005 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

3.8% (2005 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$10,900 (2005 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 3.8%
industry: 22%
services: 74.3% (2002 est.)

Labor force

30,000 (1991 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)

Unemployment rate

11% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate consumer prices

0.9% (2005 est.)

Budget

revenues: $123.7 million
expenditures: $145.9 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)

Agriculture products

cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock

Industries

tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate

NA%

Electricity production

105 million kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

97.65 million kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

0 kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

0 kWh (2004)

Oil production

0 bbl/day (2004)

Oil consumption

3,800 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

0 bbl

Natural gas production

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Current account balance

-$83.4 million (2004)

Exports

$46.81 million (2004 est.)

Exports commodities

petroleum products 48%, manufactures 23%, machinery and transport equipment 17%, food and live animals 4%, other 8%

Exports partners

Spain 34%, Germany 20.7%, Italy 7.7%, Singapore 5.8%, UK 4.9% (2006)

Imports

$378 million (2004 est.)

Imports commodities

food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

Imports partners

US 21.1%, China 16.4%, Germany 13.3%, Singapore 12.7%, Spain 6.5% (2006)

Debt external

$427.3 million; note - data are for public external debt, not total external debt (2000)

Economic aid recipient

$1.65 million (2004)

Currency code

East Caribbean dollar (XCD)

Exchange rates

East Caribbean dollars per US dollar - 2.7 (2006), 2.7 (2005), 2.7 (2004), 2.7 (2003), 2.7 (2002)
note: fixed rate since 1976

Communications - Antigua and Barbuda:

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March

Telephones main lines in use

40,000 (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

102,000 (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: NA
domestic: good automatic telephone system
international: country code - 1-268; coaxial submarine cable - 1; satellite earth station - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands Antilles) and Guadeloupe

Radio broadcast stations

AM 4, FM 2, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

2 (1997)

Internet country code

.ag

Internet hosts

2,231 (2006)

Internet users

32,000 (2006)

Transportation - Antigua and Barbuda:

Airports

3 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Roadways

total: 1,165 km
paved: 384 km
unpaved: 781 km (2002)

Merchant marine

total: 1,011 ships (1000 GRT or over) 7,452,503 GRT/9,783,309 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 40, cargo 596, chemical tanker 7, container 321, liquefied gas 11, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 12, roll on/roll off 21
foreign-owned: 984 (Australia 1, Bangladesh 4, Belgium 4, Colombia 2, Denmark 14, Estonia 12, France 1, Germany 858, Iceland 8, Isle of Man 2, Latvia 5, Lebanon 1, Lithuania 3, Netherlands 14, Norway 11, NZ 1, Poland 3, Russia 6, Singapore 1, Slovenia 6, Switzerland 4, Turkey 8, UK 7, US 7, Vietnam 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Saint Johns

Military - Antigua and Barbuda:

Military branches

Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (2006)

Military service age and obligation

18 years of age (est.); no conscript military service (2001)

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 18,952
females age 18-49: 18,360 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 14,859
females age 18-49: 14,947 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 507
females age 18-49: 494 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

NA (2006)

Disputes international

none

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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