Angola

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Introduction - Angola:

Country

Angola

Background

Angola is rebuilding its country after the end of a 27-year civil war in 2002. Fighting between the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), led by Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS, and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), led by Jonas SAVIMBI, followed independence from Portugal in 1975. Peace seemed imminent in 1992 when Angola held national elections, but UNITA renewed fighting after being beaten by the MPLA at the polls. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost - and 4 million people displaced - in the quarter century of fighting. SAVIMBIs death in 2002 ended UNITAs insurgency and strengthened the MPLAs hold on power. While President DOS SANTOS had pledged to hold legislative elections in 2007, he has since announced that legislative elections will be held in 2008, with Presidential elections planned for 2009. A specific election timetable has yet to be established.

Location - Angola:

Location

Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo

Geographic coordinates

12 30 S, 18 30 E

Map references

Africa

Area

total: 1,246,700 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area comparative

slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries

total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km

Coastline

1,600 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

Climate

semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)

Terrain

narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m

Natural resources

petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium

Land use

arable land: 2.65%
permanent crops: 0.23%
other: 97.12% (2005)

Irrigated land

800 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau

Environment current issues

overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

the province of Cabinda is an exclave, separated from the rest of the country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo

People - Angola:

Population

12,263,596 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 43.7% (male 2,706,276/female 2,654,338)
15-64 years: 53.5% (male 3,339,114/female 3,225,121)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 149,414/female 189,333) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 17.9 years
male: 17.9 years
female: 17.9 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

2.184% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

44.51 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

24.81 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

2.14 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.035 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.789 male(s)/female
total population: 1.021 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 184.44 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 196.55 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 171.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 37.63 years
male: 36.73 years
female: 38.57 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

6.27 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

3.9% (2003 est.)

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

240,000 (2003 est.)

Hiv aids deaths

21,000 (2003 est.)

Nationality

noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) are high risks in some locations
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2007)

Ethnic groups

Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%

Religions

indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)

Languages

Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.4%
male: 82.9%
female: 54.2% (2001 est.)

Government - Angola:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
local short form: Angola
former: Peoples Republic of Angola

Government type

republic; multiparty presidential regime

Capital

name: Luanda
geographic coordinates: 8 50 S, 13 14 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Independence

11 November 1975 (from Portugal)

National holiday

Independence Day, 11 November (1975)

Constitution

adopted by Peoples Assembly 25 August 1992

Legal system

based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed prime minister on 6 December 2002
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by universal ballot for a five-year term (eligible for a second consecutive or discontinuous term) under the 1992 constitution; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angolas first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBIs National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed leaving DOS SANTOS in his current position as the president

Legislative branch

unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held in September 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, other 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, other 7

Judicial branch

Supreme Court and separate provincial courts (judges are appointed by the president)

Political parties and leaders

Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA (largest opposition party) [Isaias SAMAKUVA]; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA (ruling party in power since 1975) [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS]; Social Renewal Party or PRS [Antonio MUACHICUNGO]
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats; they and the other 115 smaller parties have little influence in the National Assembly

Political pressure groups and leaders

Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [Nzita Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLECs small-scale, highly factionalized armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province ended after BEMBEs faction signed a peace accord in August 2006; other factions have since demobilized under provisions of the accord, although the two main faction leaders have not acceded to the accord

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, CPLP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OPEC, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKITI
chancery: 2108 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Cynthia EFIRD
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: US Embassy Luanda, US Department of State, 2550 Luanda Place, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] (222) 64-1000
FAX: [244] (222) 64-1232

Flag description

two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)

Economy - Angola:

Economy overview

Angolas high growth rate is driven by its oil sector, with record oil prices and rising petroleum production. Oil production and its supporting activities contribute about half of GDP and 90% of exports. Increased oil production supported 12% growth in 2004, 19% growth in 2005, and nearly 14% growth in 2006. A postwar reconstruction boom and resettlement of displaced persons has led to high rates of growth in construction and agriculture as well. Much of the countrys infrastructure is still damaged or undeveloped from the 27-year-long civil war. Remnants of the conflict such as widespread land mines still mar the countryside even though an apparently durable peace was established after the death of rebel leader Jonas SAVIMBI in February 2002. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for most of the people, but half of the countrys food must still be imported. In 2005, the government started using a $2 billion line of credit from China to rebuild Angolas public infrastructure, and several large-scale projects were completed in 2006. The central bank in 2003 implemented an exchange rate stabilization program using foreign exchange reserves to buy kwanzas out of circulation. This policy became more sustainable in 2005 because of strong oil export earnings; it has significantly reduced inflation. Although consumer inflation declined from 325% in 2000 to about 13% in 2006, the stabilization policy has put pressure on international net liquidity. To fully take advantage of its rich national resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to implement government reforms and to reduce corruption. The government has made little progress on reforms recommended by the IMF, such as promoting greater transparency in government spending, and continues to be without a formal monitoring agreement with the institution. Corruption, especially in the extractive sectors, is a major challenge facing Angola.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$53.06 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$28.61 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

15% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$4,400 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 9.6%
industry: 65.8%
services: 24.6% (2005 est.)

Labor force

6.393 million (2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 85%
industry and services: 15% (2003 est.)

Unemployment rate

extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line

70% (2003 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate consumer prices

13.2% (2006 est.)

Investment gross fixed

14.6% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $10.98 billion
expenditures: $9.7 billion; including capital expenditures of $963 million (2006 est.)

Public debt

32.7% of GDP (2006 est.)

Agriculture products

bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish

Industries

petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing, brewing, tobacco products, sugar; textiles; ship repair

Industrial production growth rate

13.5% (2004 est.)

Electricity production

2.194 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity consumption

2.04 billion kWh (2004)

Electricity exports

0 kWh (2004)

Electricity imports

0 kWh (2004)

Oil production

1.6 million bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

48,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil exports

NA bbl/day

Oil imports

NA bbl/day

Oil proved reserves

5.412 billion bbl (1 January 2005 est.)

Natural gas production

750 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

750 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

45.87 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

$7.7 billion (2006 est.)

Exports

$35.53 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

crude oil, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton

Exports partners

US 39.4%, China 35.4%, France 5%, Chile 4.3% (2006)

Imports

$10.21 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods

Imports partners

South Korea 17.3%, US 14.3%, Portugal 14.1%, China 8.3%, South Africa 6.3%, Brazil 5.9%, France 5.8% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$6.75 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$11.24 billion (2006 est.)

Economic aid recipient

$383.5 million (1999)

Currency code

kwanza (AOA)

Exchange rates

kwanza per US dollar - 80.4 (2006), 88.6 (2005), 83.541 (2004), 74.606 (2003), 43.53 (2002)

Communications - Angola:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

98,200 (2006)

Telephones mobile cellular

2.264 million (2006)

Telephone system

general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: country code - 244; satellite earth stations - 29; fiber optic submarine cable (SAT-3/WASC) provides connectivity to Europe and Asia (2005)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2001)

Television broadcast stations

6 (2000)

Internet country code

.ao

Internet hosts

2,525 (2006)

Internet users

85,000 (2005)

Transportation - Angola:

Airports

244 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 31
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 213
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 81 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 235 km; liquid petroleum gas 122 km; oil 867 km; oil/gas/water 5 km (2006)

Railways

total: 2,761 km
narrow gauge: 2,638 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2006)

Roadways

total: 51,429 km
paved: 5,349 km
unpaved: 46,080 km (2001)

Waterways

1,300 km (2007)

Merchant marine

total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,343 GRT/4,643 DWT
by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 5 (Bahamas 5) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Cabinda, Luanda, Soyo

Military - Angola:

Military branches

Angolan Armed Forces: Army, Navy (Marinha de Guerra, MdG), Angolan National Air Force (FANA) (2007)

Military service age and obligation

17 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years plus time for training (2001)

Manpower available for military service

males age 17-49: 2,548,455
females age 17-49: 2,462,601 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 17-49: 1,282,195
females age 17-49: 1,256,390 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 126,694
females age 17-49: 123,586 (2005 est.)

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 13,464 (Democratic Republic of Congo)
IDPs: 61,700 (27-year civil war ending in 2002; 4 million IDPs already have returned) (2006)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

5.7% (2006)

Disputes international

many Cabindan separatists have returned to the province from exile since the 2006 ceasefire and peace agreement; concerns from international experts and local populations over the Okavango Delta ecology in Botswana and human displacement scuttled Namibian plans to construct a hydroelectric dam at Popavalle (Popa Falls) along the Angola-Namibia border

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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