Andorra

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Introduction - Andorra:
CountryAndorra
BackgroundFor 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.
Location - Andorra:
LocationSouthwestern Europe, between France and Spain
Geographic coordinates42 30 N, 1 30 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 468 sq km
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparative2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundariestotal: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatetemperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers
Terrainrugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys
Elevation extremeslowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m
Natural resourceshydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead
Land usearable land: 2.13%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.87% (2005)
Irrigated landNA
Natural hazardsavalanches
Environment current issuesdeforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notelandlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees
People - Andorra:
Population71,822 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 14.5% (male 5,433/female 4,984)
15-64 years: 71.2% (male 26,775/female 24,354)
65 years and over: 14.3% (male 5,074/female 5,202) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 41.5 years
male: 41.8 years
female: 41.3 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate0.842% (2007 est.)
Birth rate8.45 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate6.45 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate6.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.099 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.975 male(s)/female
total population: 1.079 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.03 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.37 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 83.52 years
male: 80.62 years
female: 86.62 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate1.31 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rateNA
Hiv aids people living with hiv aidsNA
Hiv aids deathsNA
Nationalitynoun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran
Ethnic groupsSpanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)
ReligionsRoman Catholic (predominant)
LanguagesCatalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese
Literacydefinition: NA
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%
Government - Andorra:
Country nameconventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat dAndorra
local short form: Andorra
Government typeparliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces representatives
Capitalname: Andorra la Vella
geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria
Independence1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgel)
National holidayOur Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)
ConstitutionAndorras first written constitution was drafted in 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993
Legal systembased on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002) and Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since NA)
head of government: Executive Council President Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA (since 27 May 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held in April-May 2009)
election results: Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA
Legislative branchunicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 April 2005 (next to be held in March-April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 41.2%, PS 38.1%, CDA-S21 11%, other 9.7%; seats by party - PLA 14, PS 12, CDA-S21 2
Judicial branchTribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia dAndorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional
Political parties and leadersAndorran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party or PD); Century 21 or S21 [Enric TARRADO]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA] (formerly Liberal Union or UL); Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY] (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND)
Political pressure groups and leadersNA
International organization participationCE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Julian VILA COMA
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630
Diplomatic representation from the usthe US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate Generals office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (3) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (3) 205-5206
Flag descriptionthree equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem
Economy - Andorra:
Economy overviewTourism, the mainstay of Andorras tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11.6 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorras duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorras comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial tax haven status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.
Gdp purchasing power parity $2.77 billion (2005)
Gdp official exchange rate NA
Gdp real growth rate3.5% (2005 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $38,800 (2005)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Labor force42,420 (2005)
Labor force by occupationagriculture: 0.3%
industry: 20.3%
services: 79.4% (2005)
Unemployment rate0% (1996 est.)
Population below poverty lineNA%
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate consumer prices 3.2% (2005)
Budgetrevenues: $333.5 million
expenditures: $386.6 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005)
Agriculture productssmall quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep
Industriestourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking, tobacco, furniture
Industrial production growth rateNA%
Electricity productionNA kWh
Electricity consumptionNA kWh
Electricity exportsNA kWh
Electricity importsNA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower
Exports$148.7 million f.o.b. (2005)
Exports commoditiestobacco products, furniture
Exports partnersSpain 59.5%, France 17.0% (2006)
Imports$1.879 billion (2005)
Imports commoditiesconsumer goods, food, electricity
Imports partnersSpain 53.2%, France 21.1% (2006)
Debt external$NA
Economic aid recipient$0
Currency code euro (EUR)
Exchange rateseuros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)
Communications - Andorra:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use35,400 (2005)
Telephones mobile cellular64,600 (2005)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: NA
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain
Radio broadcast stationsAM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)
Television broadcast stations0 (1997)
Internet country code.ad
Internet hosts14,944 (2006)
Internet users23,200 (2006)
Transportation - Andorra:
Roadwaystotal: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved: 71 km
Military - Andorra:
Military branchesno regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra
Manpower available for military servicemales age 18-49: 18,418 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 18-49: 14,721 (2005 est.)
Military notedefense is the responsibility of France and Spain
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 369 (2005 est.)
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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