Andorra

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Introduction - Andorra:

Country

Andorra

Background

For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, Andorrans lived under a unique co-principality, ruled by French and Spanish leaders (from 1607 onward, the French chief of state and the Spanish bishop of Urgel). In 1993, this feudal system was modified with the titular heads of state retained, but the government transformed into a parliamentary democracy. Long isolated and impoverished, mountainous Andorra achieved considerable prosperity since World War II through its tourist industry. Many immigrants (legal and illegal) are attracted to the thriving economy with its lack of income taxes.

Location - Andorra:

Location

Southwestern Europe, between France and Spain

Geographic coordinates

42 30 N, 1 30 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 468 sq km
land: 468 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area comparative

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries

total: 120.3 km
border countries: France 56.6 km, Spain 63.7 km

Coastline

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)

Climate

temperate; snowy, cold winters and warm, dry summers

Terrain

rugged mountains dissected by narrow valleys

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Riu Runer 840 m
highest point: Coma Pedrosa 2,946 m

Natural resources

hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead

Land use

arable land: 2.13%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 97.87% (2005)

Irrigated land

NA

Natural hazards

avalanches

Environment current issues

deforestation; overgrazing of mountain meadows contributes to soil erosion; air pollution; wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

landlocked; straddles a number of important crossroads in the Pyrenees

People - Andorra:

Population

71,822 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 14.5% (male 5,433/female 4,984)
15-64 years: 71.2% (male 26,775/female 24,354)
65 years and over: 14.3% (male 5,074/female 5,202) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 41.5 years
male: 41.8 years
female: 41.3 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.842% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

8.45 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

6.45 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

6.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.099 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.975 male(s)/female
total population: 1.079 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 4.03 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.37 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 83.52 years
male: 80.62 years
female: 86.62 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

1.31 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

NA

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

NA

Hiv aids deaths

NA

Nationality

noun: Andorran(s)
adjective: Andorran

Ethnic groups

Spanish 43%, Andorran 33%, Portuguese 11%, French 7%, other 6% (1998)

Religions

Roman Catholic (predominant)

Languages

Catalan (official), French, Castilian, Portuguese

Literacy

definition: NA
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100%

Government - Andorra:

Country name

conventional long form: Principality of Andorra
conventional short form: Andorra
local long form: Principat dAndorra
local short form: Andorra

Government type

parliamentary democracy (since March 1993) that retains as its chiefs of state a coprincipality; the two princes are the president of France and bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain, who are represented locally by coprinces representatives

Capital

name: Andorra la Vella
geographic coordinates: 42 30 N, 1 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

7 parishes (parroquies, singular - parroquia); Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Escaldes-Engordany, La Massana, Ordino, Sant Julia de Loria

Independence

1278 (formed under the joint suzerainty of the French Count of Foix and the Spanish Bishop of Urgel)

National holiday

Our Lady of Meritxell Day, 8 September (1278)

Constitution

Andorras first written constitution was drafted in 1991, approved by referendum 14 March 1993, effective 28 April 1993

Legal system

based on French and Spanish civil codes; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: French Coprince Nicolas SARKOZY (since 16 May 2007); represented by Philippe MASSONI (since 26 July 2002) and Spanish Coprince Bishop Joan Enric VIVES i SICILIA (since 12 May 2003); represented by Nemesi MARQUES i OSTE (since NA)
head of government: Executive Council President Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA (since 27 May 2005)
cabinet: Executive Council or Govern designated by the Executive Council president
elections: Executive Council president elected by the General Council and formally appointed by the coprinces for a four-year term; election last held 24 April 2005 (next to be held in April-May 2009)
election results: Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA elected executive council president; percent of General Council vote - NA

Legislative branch

unicameral General Council of the Valleys or Consell General de las Valls (28 seats; members are elected by direct popular vote, 14 from a single national constituency and 14 to represent each of the seven parishes; to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 24 April 2005 (next to be held in March-April 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - PLA 41.2%, PS 38.1%, CDA-S21 11%, other 9.7%; seats by party - PLA 14, PS 12, CDA-S21 2

Judicial branch

Tribunal of Judges or Tribunal de Batlles; Tribunal of the Courts or Tribunal de Corts; Supreme Court of Justice of Andorra or Tribunal Superior de Justicia dAndorra; Supreme Council of Justice or Consell Superior de la Justicia; Fiscal Ministry or Ministeri Fiscal; Constitutional Tribunal or Tribunal Constitucional

Political parties and leaders

Andorran Democratic Center Party or CDA (formerly Democratic Party or PD); Century 21 or S21 [Enric TARRADO]; Liberal Party of Andorra or PLA [Albert PINTAT SANTOLARIA] (formerly Liberal Union or UL); Social Democratic Party or PS [Jaume BARTUMEU CASSANY] (formerly part of National Democratic Group or AND)

Political pressure groups and leaders

NA

International organization participation

CE, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, Union Latina, UNWTO, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Julian VILA COMA
chancery: 2 United Nations Plaza, 25th Floor, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 750-8064
FAX: [1] (212) 750-6630

Diplomatic representation from the us

the US does not have an embassy in Andorra; the US Ambassador to Spain is accredited to Andorra; US interests in Andorra are represented by the Consulate Generals office in Barcelona (Spain); mailing address: Paseo Reina Elisenda de Montcada, 23, 08034 Barcelona, Spain; telephone: [34] (3) 280-2227; FAX: [34] (3) 205-5206

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red with the national coat of arms centered in the yellow band; the coat of arms features a quartered shield; similar to the flags of Chad and Romania, which do not have a national coat of arms in the center, and the flag of Moldova, which does bear a national emblem

Economy - Andorra:

Economy overview

Tourism, the mainstay of Andorras tiny, well-to-do economy, accounts for more than 80% of GDP. An estimated 11.6 million tourists visit annually, attracted by Andorras duty-free status and by its summer and winter resorts. Andorras comparative advantage has recently eroded as the economies of neighboring France and Spain have been opened up, providing broader availability of goods and lower tariffs. The banking sector, with its partial tax haven status, also contributes substantially to the economy. Agricultural production is limited - only 2% of the land is arable - and most food has to be imported. The principal livestock activity is sheep raising. Manufacturing output consists mainly of cigarettes, cigars, and furniture. Andorra is a member of the EU Customs Union and is treated as an EU member for trade in manufactured goods (no tariffs) and as a non-EU member for agricultural products.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$2.77 billion (2005)

Gdp official exchange rate

NA

Gdp real growth rate

3.5% (2005 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$38,800 (2005)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%

Labor force

42,420 (2005)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 0.3%
industry: 20.3%
services: 79.4% (2005)

Unemployment rate

0% (1996 est.)

Population below poverty line

NA%

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Inflation rate consumer prices

3.2% (2005)

Budget

revenues: $333.5 million
expenditures: $386.6 million; including capital expenditures of $NA (2005)

Agriculture products

small quantities of rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables; sheep

Industries

tourism (particularly skiing), cattle raising, timber, banking, tobacco, furniture

Industrial production growth rate

NA%

Electricity production

NA kWh

Electricity consumption

NA kWh

Electricity exports

NA kWh

Electricity imports

NA kWh; note - most electricity supplied by Spain and France; Andorra generates a small amount of hydropower

Exports

$148.7 million f.o.b. (2005)

Exports commodities

tobacco products, furniture

Exports partners

Spain 59.5%, France 17.0% (2006)

Imports

$1.879 billion (2005)

Imports commodities

consumer goods, food, electricity

Imports partners

Spain 53.2%, France 21.1% (2006)

Debt external

$NA

Economic aid recipient

$0

Currency code

euro (EUR)

Exchange rates

euros per US dollar - 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003), 1.0626 (2002)

Communications - Andorra:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

35,400 (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

64,600 (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: NA
domestic: modern system with microwave radio relay connections between exchanges
international: country code - 376; landline circuits to France and Spain

Radio broadcast stations

AM 0, FM 15, shortwave 0 (1998)

Television broadcast stations

0 (1997)

Internet country code

.ad

Internet hosts

14,944 (2006)

Internet users

23,200 (2006)

Transportation - Andorra:

Roadways

total: 269 km
paved: 198 km
unpaved: 71 km

Military - Andorra:

Military branches

no regular military forces, Police Service of Andorra

Manpower available for military service

males age 18-49: 18,418 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 18-49: 14,721 (2005 est.)

Military note

defense is the responsibility of France and Spain

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 369 (2005 est.)

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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