Algeria

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Introduction - Algeria:
CountryAlgeria
BackgroundAfter more than a century of rule by France, Algerians fought through much of the 1950s to achieve independence in 1962. Algerias primary political party, the National Liberation Front (FLN), has dominated politics ever since. Many Algerians in the subsequent generation were not satisfied, however, and moved to counter the FLNs centrality in Algerian politics. The surprising first round success of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) in the December 1991 balloting spurred the Algerian army to intervene and postpone the second round of elections to prevent what the secular elite feared would be an extremist-led government from assuming power. The army began a crackdown on the FIS that spurred FIS supporters to begin attacking government targets. The government later allowed elections featuring pro-government and moderate religious-based parties, but did not appease the activists who progressively widened their attacks. The fighting escalated into an insurgency, which saw intense fighting between 1992-98 and which resulted in over 100,000 deaths - many attributed to indiscriminate massacres of villagers by extremists. The government gained the upper hand by the late-1990s and FISs armed wing, the Islamic Salvation Army, disbanded in January 2000. However, small numbers of armed militants persist in confronting government forces and conducting ambushes and occasional attacks on villages. The army placed Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA in the presidency in 1999 in a fraudulent election but claimed neutrality in his 2004 landslide reelection victory. Longstanding problems continue to face BOUTEFLIKA in his second term, including the ethnic minority Berbers ongoing autonomy campaign, large-scale unemployment, a shortage of housing, unreliable electrical and water supplies, government inefficiencies and corruption, and the continuing - although significantly degraded - activities of extremist militants. Algeria must also diversify its petroleum-based economy, which has yielded a large cash reserve but which has not been used to redress Algerias many social and infrastructure problems.
Location - Algeria:
LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Morocco and Tunisia
Geographic coordinates28 00 N, 3 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 2,381,740 sq km
land: 2,381,740 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area comparativeslightly less than 3.5 times the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 6,343 km
border countries: Libya 982 km, Mali 1,376 km, Mauritania 463 km, Morocco 1,559 km, Niger 956 km, Tunisia 965 km, Western Sahara 42 km
Coastline998 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 32-52 nm
Climatearid to semiarid; mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer
Terrainmostly high plateau and desert; some mountains; narrow, discontinuous coastal plain
Elevation extremeslowest point: Chott Melrhir -40 m
highest point: Tahat 3,003 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc
Land usearable land: 3.17%
permanent crops: 0.28%
other: 96.55% (2005)
Irrigated land5,690 sq km (2003)
Natural hazardsmountainous areas subject to severe earthquakes; mudslides and floods in rainy season
Environment current issuessoil erosion from overgrazing and other poor farming practices; desertification; dumping of raw sewage, petroleum refining wastes, and other industrial effluents is leading to the pollution of rivers and coastal waters; Mediterranean Sea, in particular, becoming polluted from oil wastes, soil erosion, and fertilizer runoff; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography notesecond-largest country in Africa (after Sudan)
People - Algeria:
Population33,333,216 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 27.2% (male 4,627,479/female 4,447,468)
15-64 years: 67.9% (male 11,413,121/female 11,235,096)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 752,058/female 857,994) (2007 est.)
Median agetotal: 25.5 years
male: 25.2 years
female: 25.7 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate1.216% (2007 est.)
Birth rate17.11 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate4.62 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate-0.33 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.016 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.877 male(s)/female
total population: 1.015 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 28.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.45 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 73.52 years
male: 71.91 years
female: 75.21 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate1.86 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Hiv aids adult prevalence rate0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
Hiv aids people living with hiv aids9,100 (2003 est.)
Hiv aids deathsless than 500 (2003 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Algerian(s)
adjective: Algerian
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: cutaneous leishmaniasis is a high risk in some locations (2007)
Ethnic groupsArab-Berber 99%, European less than 1%
note: almost all Algerians are Berber in origin, not Arab; the minority who identify themselves as Berber live mostly in the mountainous region of Kabylie east of Algiers; the Berbers are also Muslim but identify with their Berber rather than Arab cultural heritage; Berbers have long agitated, sometimes violently, for autonomy; the government is unlikely to grant autonomy but has offered to begin sponsoring teaching Berber language in schools
ReligionsSunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%
LanguagesArabic (official), French, Berber dialects
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.9%
male: 79.6%
female: 60.1% (2002 est.)
Government - Algeria:
Country nameconventional long form: Peoples Democratic Republic of Algeria
conventional short form: Algeria
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Jazairiyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Shabiyah
local short form: Al Jazair
Government typerepublic
Capitalname: Algiers
geographic coordinates: 36 45 N, 3 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions48 provinces (wilayat, singular - wilaya); Adrar, Ain Defla, Ain Temouchent, Alger, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, MSila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen
Independence5 July 1962 (from France)
National holidayRevolution Day, 1 November (1954)
Constitution8 September 1963; revised 19 November 1976, effective 22 November 1976; revised 3 November 1988, 23 February 1989, and 28 November 1996
Legal systemsocialist, based on French and Islamic law; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage18 years of age; universal
Executive branchchief of state: President Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA (since 28 April 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Abdelaziz BELKHADEM
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 8 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2009); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA reelected president for second term; percent of vote - Abdelaziz BOUTEFLIKA 85%, Ali BENFLIS 6.4%, Abdellah DJABALLAH 5%
Legislative branchbicameral Parliament consists of the National Peoples Assembly or Al-Majlis Ech-Chaabi Al-Watani (389 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Council of Nations (Senate) (144 seats; one-third of the members appointed by the president, two-thirds elected by indirect vote; to serve six-year terms; the constitution requires half the council to be renewed every three years)
elections: National Peoples Assembly - last held 17 May 2007 (next to be held in 2012); Council of Nations (Senate) - last held 28 December 2006 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: National Peoples Assembly - percent of vote by party - FLN 23%, RND 10.3%, MSP 9.6%, PT 5.1%, RCD 3.4%, FNA 4.2%, other 34.6%, independents 9.8%; seats by party - FLN 136, RND 61, MSP 52, PT 26, RCD 19, FNA 13, other 49, independents 33; Council of Nations - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - FLN 29, RND 12, MSP 3, RCD 1, independents 3, presidential appointees (unknown affiliation) 24; note - Council seating reflects the number of replaced council members rather than the whole Council
Judicial branchSupreme Court
Political parties and leadersAhd 54 [Ali Fauzi REBAINE]; Algerian National Front or FNA [Moussa TOUATI]; National Democratic Rally (Rassemblement National Democratique) or RND [Ahmed OUYAHIA]; Islamic Salvation Front or FIS (outlawed April 1992) [Ali BELHADJ, Dr. Abassi MADANI, Rabeh KEBIR]; National Entente Movement or MEN [Ali BOUKHAZNA]; National Liberation Front or FLN [Abdelaziz BELKHADEM, secretary general]; National Reform Movement or Islah (formerly MRN) [Abdellah DJABALLAH]; National Renewal Party or PRA [Mohamed BENSMAIL]; Rally for Culture and Democracy or RCD [Said SADI]; Renaissance Movement or EnNahda Movement [Fatah RABEI]; Socialist Forces Front or FFS [Hocine Ait AHMED]; Social Liberal Party or PSL [Ahmed KHELIL]; Society of Peace Movement or MSP [Boudjerra SOLTANI]; Workers Party or PT [Louisa HANOUNE]
note: a law banning political parties based on religion was enacted in March 1997
Political pressure groups and leadersThe Algerian Human Rights League or LADDH [Hocine ZEHOUANE]; SOS Disparus [Nacera DUTOUR]; Somoud [Ali MERABET]
International organization participationABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AMU, AU, BIS, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAS, MIGA, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OPCW, OPEC, OSCE (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the uschief of mission: Ambassador Amine KHERBI
chancery: 2118 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-2800
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2174
Diplomatic representation from the uschief of mission: Ambassador Robert S. FORD
embassy: 04 Chemin Cheikh Bachir Ibrahimi El-Biar 16030, Algiers
mailing address: B. P. 408, Alger-Gare, 16030 Algiers
telephone: [213] (021) 69-12-55
FAX: [213] (021) 69-39-79
Flag descriptiontwo equal vertical bands of green (hoist side) and white; a red, five-pointed star within a red crescent centered over the two-color boundary; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam (the state religion)
Economy - Algeria:
Economy overviewThe hydrocarbons sector is the backbone of the economy, accounting for roughly 60% of budget revenues, 30% of GDP, and over 95% of export earnings. Algeria has the eighth-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the fourth-largest gas exporter; it ranks 18th in oil reserves. Sustained high oil prices in recent years, along with macroeconomic policy reforms supported by the IMF, have helped improve Algerias financial and macroeconomic indicators. Algeria is running substantial trade surpluses and building up record foreign exchange reserves. Algeria has decreased its external debt to less than 10% of GDP after repaying its Paris Club and London Club debt in 2006. Real GDP has risen due to higher oil output and increased government spending. The governments continued efforts to diversify the economy by attracting foreign and domestic investment outside the energy sector, however, has had little success in reducing high unemployment and improving living standards. Structural reform within the economy, such as development of the banking sector and the construction of infrastructure, moves ahead slowly hampered by corruption and bureaucratic resistance.
Gdp purchasing power parity $250 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp official exchange rate $90 billion (2006 est.)
Gdp real growth rate3% (2006 est.)
Gdp per capita ppp $7,600 (2006 est.)
Gdp composition by sectoragriculture: 9.4%
industry: 58.1%
services: 32.5% (2006 est.)
Labor force9.31 million (2006 est.)
Labor force by occupationagriculture 14%, industry 13.4%, construction and public works 10%, trade 14.6%, government 32%, other 16% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate15.7% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line25% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 26.8% (1995)
Distribution of family income gini index35.3 (1995)
Inflation rate consumer prices 3% (2006 est.)
Investment gross fixed 23.4% of GDP (2006 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $59.26 billion
expenditures: $49.14 billion; including capital expenditures of $5.8 billion (2006 est.)
Public debt18.6% of GDP (2006 est.)
Agriculture productswheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle
Industriespetroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
Industrial production growth rate10% (2006 est.)
Electricity production29.39 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity consumption27.4 billion kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity exports230 million kWh (2004 est.)
Electricity imports300 million kWh (2004 est.)
Oil production1.373 million bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil consumption233,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil exports1.724 million bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil imports12,390 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil proved reserves11.8 billion bbl (1 January 2005 est.)
Natural gas production80.15 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas consumption19.28 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas exports60.87 billion cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas imports0 cu m (2004 est.)
Natural gas proved reserves4.545 trillion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)
Current account balance$25.8 billion (2006 est.)
Exports$55.6 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Exports commoditiespetroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%
Exports partnersUS 26.7%, Italy 16.6%, Spain 9.1%, France 8.6%, Canada 7.9%, Brazil 6.5%, Belgium 4.4% (2006)
Imports$27.6 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)
Imports commoditiescapital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports partnersFrance 22.1%, Italy 8.6%, China 8.5%, Germany 5.9%, Spain 5.6%, US 4.8%, Turkey 4.5% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$78 billion (2006 est.)
Debt external$5 billion (2006 est.)
Economic aid recipient$313 million (2004 est.)
Currency code Algerian dinar (DZD)
Exchange ratesAlgerian dinars per US dollar - 72.647 (2006), 73.276 (2005), 72.061 (2004), 77.395 (2003), 79.682 (2002)
Communications - Algeria:
Fiscal yearcalendar year
Telephones main lines in use2.841 million (2006)
Telephones mobile cellular20.998 million (2006)
Telephone systemgeneral assessment: telephone density in Algeria is very low, not exceeding 5 telephones per 100 persons; the number of fixed main lines increased in the last few years to nearly 2.6 million, but only about two-thirds of these have subscribers; much of the infrastructure is outdated and inefficient
domestic: good service in north but sparse in south; domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations (20 additional domestic earth stations are planned)
international: country code - 213; submarine cables - 5; microwave radio relay to Italy, France, Spain, Morocco, and Tunisia; coaxial cable to Morocco and Tunisia; participant in Medarabtel; satellite earth stations - 51 (Intelsat, Intersputnik, and Arabsat) (2005)
Radio broadcast stationsAM 25, FM 1, shortwave 8 (1999)
Television broadcast stations46 (plus 216 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code.dz
Internet hosts1,202 (2006)
Internet users2.46 million (2006)
Transportation - Algeria:
Airports142 (2006)
Airports with paved runwaystotal: 52
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2006)
Airports with unpaved runwaystotal: 90
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 39
under 914 m: 23 (2006)
Heliports1 (2006)
Pipelinescondensate 1,344 km; gas 85,946 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,213 km; oil 6,496 km (2005)
Railwaystotal: 3,973 km
standard gauge: 2,888 km 1.435-m gauge (283 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 1,085 km 1.055-m gauge (2006)
Roadwaystotal: 108,302 km
paved: 76,028 km
unpaved: 32,274 km (2004)
Merchant marinetotal: 41 ships (1000 GRT or over) 744,406 GRT/766,764 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 10, chemical tanker 2, liquefied gas 9, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 3, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 13 (UK 13) (2006)
Ports and terminalsAlgiers, Annaba, Arzew, Bejaia, Djendjene, Jijel, Mostaganem, Oran, Skikda
Military - Algeria:
Military branchesNational Popular Army (ANP; includes Land Forces), Algerian National Navy (MRA), Air Force (QJJ), Territorial Air Defense Force (2005)
Military service age and obligation19-30 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation - 18 months (6 months basic training, 12 months civil projects) (2006)
Manpower available for military servicemales age 19-49: 8,033,049
females age 19-49: 7,926,351 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military servicemales age 19-49: 6,590,079
females age 19-49: 6,711,285 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annuallymales age 18-49: 374,639
females age 19-49: 369,021 (2005 est.)
Refugees and internally displaced personsrefugees (country of origin): 90,000 (Western Saharan Sahrawi, mostly living in Algerian-sponsored camps in the southwestern Algerian town of Tindouf)
IDPs: 400,000-600,000 (conflict between government forces, Islamic insurgents) (2006)
Military expenditures percent of gdp3.3% (2006)
Disputes internationalAlgeria supports the Polisario Front exiled in Algeria and who represent the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic; Algeria rejects Moroccan administration of Western Sahara; most of the approximately 90,000 Western Saharan Sahrawi refugees are sheltered in camps in Tindouf, Algeria; Algerias border with Morocco remains an irritant to bilateral relations, each nation accusing the other of harboring militants and arms smuggling; Algeria remains concerned about armed bandits operating throughout the Sahel who sometimes destabilize southern Algerian towns; dormant disputes include Libyan claims of about 32,000 sq km still reflected on its maps of southeastern Algeria and the FLNs assertions of a claim to Chirac Pastures in southeastern Morocco
This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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