Albania

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Introduction - Albania:

Country

Albania

Background

Between 1990 and 1992 Albania ended 46 years of xenophobic Communist rule and established a multiparty democracy. The transition has proven challenging as successive governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, widespread corruption, a dilapidated physical infrastructure, powerful organized crime networks, and combative political opponents. Albania has made progress in its democratic development since first holding multiparty elections in 1991, but deficiencies remain. International observers judged elections to be largely free and fair since the restoration of political stability following the collapse of pyramid schemes in 1997. In the 2005 general elections, the Democratic Party and its allies won a decisive victory on pledges of reducing crime and corruption, promoting economic growth, and decreasing the size of government. The election, and particularly the orderly transition of power, was considered an important step forward. Although Albanias economy continues to grow, the country is still one of the poorest in Europe, hampered by a large informal economy and an inadequate energy and transportation infrastructure. Albania has played a largely helpful role in managing inter-ethnic tensions in southeastern Europe, and is continuing to work toward joining NATO and the EU. Albania, with troops in Iraq and Afghanistan, has been a strong supporter of the global war on terrorism.

Location - Albania:

Location

Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Ionian Sea, between Greece in the south and Montenegro and Serbia to the north

Geographic coordinates

41 00 N, 20 00 E

Map references

Europe

Area

total: 28,748 sq km
land: 27,398 sq km
water: 1,350 sq km

Area comparative

slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries

total: 720 km
border countries: Greece 282 km, Macedonia 151 km, Montenegro 172 km, Serbia 115 km

Coastline

362 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Climate

mild temperate; cool, cloudy, wet winters; hot, clear, dry summers; interior is cooler and wetter

Terrain

mostly mountains and hills; small plains along coast

Elevation extremes

lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maja e Korabit (Golem Korab) 2,764 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, salt, timber, hydropower

Land use

arable land: 20.1%
permanent crops: 4.21%
other: 75.69% (2005)

Irrigated land

3,530 sq km (2003)

Natural hazards

destructive earthquakes; tsunamis occur along southwestern coast; floods; drought

Environment current issues

deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution from industrial and domestic effluents

Environment international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography note

strategic location along Strait of Otranto (links Adriatic Sea to Ionian Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

People - Albania:

Population

3,600,523 (July 2007 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 24.1% (male 454,622/female 413,698)
15-64 years: 66.6% (male 1,228,497/female 1,170,489)
65 years and over: 9.3% (male 154,352/female 178,865) (2007 est.)

Median age

total: 29.2 years
male: 28.6 years
female: 29.8 years (2007 est.)

Population growth rate

0.529% (2007 est.)

Birth rate

15.16 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Death rate

5.33 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Net migration rate

-4.54 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.1 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.099 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.863 male(s)/female
total population: 1.042 male(s)/female (2007 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 20.02 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 20.46 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 19.54 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 77.6 years
male: 74.95 years
female: 80.53 years (2007 est.)

Total fertility rate

2.03 children born/woman (2007 est.)

Hiv aids adult prevalence rate

NA

Hiv aids people living with hiv aids

NA

Hiv aids deaths

NA

Nationality

noun: Albanian(s)
adjective: Albanian

Ethnic groups

Albanian 95%, Greek 3%, other 2% (Vlach, Roma (Gypsy), Serb, Macedonian, Bulgarian) (1989 est.)
note: in 1989, other estimates of the Greek population ranged from 1% (official Albanian statistics) to 12% (from a Greek organization)

Religions

Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10%
note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice

Languages

Albanian (official - derived from Tosk dialect), Greek, Vlach, Romani, Slavic dialects

Literacy

definition: age 9 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.2%
female: 98.3% (2001 census)

Government - Albania:

Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Albania
conventional short form: Albania
local long form: Republika e Shqiperise
local short form: Shqiperia
former: Peoples Socialist Republic of Albania

Government type

emerging democracy

Capital

name: Tirana (Tirane)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 19 49 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

12 counties (qarqe, singular - qark); Berat, Diber, Durres, Elbasan, Fier, Gjirokaster, Korce, Kukes, Lezhe, Shkoder, Tirane, Vlore

Independence

28 November 1912 (from the Ottoman Empire)

National holiday

Independence Day, 28 November (1912)

Constitution

adopted by popular referendum on 22 November 1998; promulgated 28 November 1998

Legal system

has a civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; has accepted jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court for its citizens

Suffrage

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President of the Republic Bamir TOPI (since 24 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Sali BERISHA (since 10 September 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, nominated by the president, and approved by parliament
elections: president elected by the Peoples Assembly for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); four election rounds held between 8 and 20 July 2007 (next election to be held in 2012); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Bamir TOPI elected president; Peoples Assembly vote, fourth round (three-fifths majority (84 votes) required): Bamir TOPI 85 votes, Neritan CEKA 5 votes

Legislative branch

unicameral Assembly or Kuvendi (140 seats; 100 members are elected by direct popular vote and 40 by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 3 July 2005 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PD 56, PS 42, PR 11, PSD 7, LSI 5, other 19

Judicial branch

Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (chairman is elected by the Peoples Assembly for a four-year term), and multiple appeals and district courts

Political parties and leaders

Agrarian Environmentalist Party or PAA [Lufter XHUVELI]; Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nard NDOKA]; Communist Party of Albania or PKSH [Hysni MILLOSHI]; Democratic Alliance Party or AD [Neritan CEKA]; Democratic Party or PD [Sali BERISHA]; Legality Movement Party or PLL [Ekrem SPAHIU]; Liberal Union Party or BLD [Arjan STAROVA]; National Front Party (Balli Kombetar) or PBK [Adriatik ALIMADHI]; New Democratic Party or PDR [Genc POLLO]; Party of National Unity or PUK [Idajet BEQIRI]; Renewed Democratic Party or PDRN [Dashamir SHEHI]; Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU]; Social Democracy Party of Albania or PDSSh [Paskal MILO]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Skender GJINUSHI]; Socialist Movement for Integration or LSI [Ilir META]; Socialist Party or PS [Edi RAMA]; Union for Human Rights Party or PBDNj [Vangjel DULE]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Citizens Advocacy Office [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Confederation of Trade Unions of Albania or KSSH [Kastriot MUCO]; Front for Albanian National Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement [Erion VELIAJ]; Omonia [Jani JANI]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]

International organization participation

BSEC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC, MIGA, OIC, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNOMIG, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Aleksander SALLABANDA
chancery: 2100 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 223-4942
FAX: [1] (202) 628-7342

Diplomatic representation from the us

chief of mission: Ambassador Marcie B. RIES
embassy: Rruga e Elbasanit, Labinoti #103, Tirana
mailing address: US Department of State, 9510 Tirana Place, Dulles, VA 20189-9510
telephone: [355] (4) 247285
FAX: [355] (4) 232222

Flag description

red with a black two-headed eagle in the center

Economy - Albania:

Economy overview

Lagging behind its Balkan neighbors, Albania is making the difficult transition to a more modern open-market economy. The government has taken measures to curb violent crime and reduce the large gray economy. The economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy; this helps offset the towering trade deficit. Agriculture, which accounts for about one-quarter of GDP, is held back because of lack of modern equipment, unclear property rights, and the prevalence of small, inefficient plots of land. Energy shortages and antiquated and inadequate infrastructure contribute to Albanias poor business environment, which make it difficult to attract and sustain foreign investment. The planned construction of a new thermal power plant near Vlore and improved transmission and distribution facilities eventually will help relieve the energy shortages. Also, the government is moving slowly to improve the poor national road and rail network, a long-standing barrier to sustained economic growth. On the positive side, growth was strong in 2003-06 and inflation is low and stable.

Gdp purchasing power parity

$20.46 billion
note: Albania has a large gray economy that may be as large as 50% of official GDP (2006 est.)

Gdp official exchange rate

$9.306 billion (2006 est.)

Gdp real growth rate

5% (2006 est.)

Gdp per capita ppp

$5,700 (2006 est.)

Gdp composition by sector

agriculture: 23.3%
industry: 18.8%
services: 57.9% (2006 est.)

Labor force

1.09 million (not including 352,000 emigrant workers) (September 2006 est.)

Labor force by occupation

agriculture: 58%
industry: 15%
services: 27% (September 2006 est.)

Unemployment rate

13.8% official rate, but may exceed 30% due to preponderance of near-subsistence farming (September 2006 est.)

Population below poverty line

25% (2004 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%

Distribution of family income gini index

26.7 (2005)

Inflation rate consumer prices

2.5% (2006)

Investment gross fixed

24.5% of GDP (2006 est.)

Budget

revenues: $2.608 billion
expenditures: $3.1 billion; including capital expenditures of $710 million (2007 est.)

Agriculture products

wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, grapes; meat, dairy products

Industries

food processing, textiles and clothing; lumber, oil, cement, chemicals, mining, basic metals, hydropower

Industrial production growth rate

3.4% (2005 est.)

Electricity production

5.451 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity consumption

3.53 billion kWh (2005)

Electricity exports

729 million kWh (2005)

Electricity imports

385 million kWh (2005)

Oil production

3,600 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil consumption

25,200 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil exports

1,240 bbl/day (2004 est.)

Oil imports

21,600 bbl/day (2005 est.)

Oil proved reserves

165 million bbl (1 January 2005)

Natural gas production

30 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas consumption

30 million cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas exports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas imports

0 cu m (2004 est.)

Natural gas proved reserves

2.832 billion cu m (1 January 2005 est.)

Current account balance

-$679.9 million (2006 est.)

Exports

$763.2 million f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Exports commodities

textiles and footwear; asphalt, metals and metallic ores, crude oil; vegetables, fruits, tobacco

Exports partners

Italy 67.8%, Serbia and Montenegro 5.8%, Greece 5.4% (2006)

Imports

$2.901 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.)

Imports commodities

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, chemicals

Imports partners

Italy 32%, Greece 17.7%, Turkey 8%, Germany 5.6% (2006)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$1.621 billion (2006 est.)

Debt external

$1.55 billion (2004)

Economic aid recipient

ODA: $366 million
note: top donors were Italy, EU, Germany (2003 est.)

Currency code

lek (ALL)
note: the plural of lek is leke

Exchange rates

leke per US dollar - 98.384 (2006), 102.649 (2005), 102.78 (2004), 121.863 (2003), 140.155 (2002)

Communications - Albania:

Fiscal year

calendar year

Telephones main lines in use

353,600 (2005)

Telephones mobile cellular

1.53 million (2005)

Telephone system

general assessment: despite new investment in fixed lines, the density of main lines remains the lowest in Europe with roughly 7 lines per 100 people; however, cellular telephone use is widespread and generally effective
domestic: offsetting the shortage of fixed line capacity, mobile phone service has been available since 1996; by 2003 two companies were providing mobile services at a greater density than some of Albanias Balkan neighbors
international: country code - 355; inadequate fixed main lines; adequate cellular connections; international traffic carried by fiber optic cable and, when necessary, by microwave radio relay from the Tirana exchange to Italy and Greece (2003)

Radio broadcast stations

AM 13, FM 46, shortwave 1 (2005)

Television broadcast stations

65 (3 national, 62 local); 2 cable networks (2005)

Internet country code

.al

Internet hosts

430 (2006)

Internet users

471,200 (2006)

Transportation - Albania:

Airports

11 (2006)

Airports with paved runways

total: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 (2006)

Airports with unpaved runways

total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 4 (2006)

Heliports

1 (2006)

Pipelines

gas 339 km; oil 207 km (2006)

Railways

total: 447 km
standard gauge: 447 km 1.435-m gauge (2006)

Roadways

total: 18,000 km
paved: 7,020 km
unpaved: 10,980 km (2002)

Waterways

43 km (2007)

Merchant marine

total: 24 ships (1000 GRT or over) 52,987 GRT/79,863 DWT
by type: cargo 23, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned: 1 (Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 1 (Georgia 1) (2006)

Ports and terminals

Durres, Sarande, Shengjin, Vlore

Military - Albania:

Military branches

Land Forces Command (Army), Naval Forces Command, Air Defense Command, General Staff Headquarters (includes Logistics Command, Training and Doctrine Command) (2007)

Military service age and obligation

19 years of age (2004)

Manpower available for military service

males age 19-49: 809,524
females age 19-49: 784,199 (2005 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 19-49: 668,526
females age 19-49: 648,334 (2005 est.)

Manpower reaching military service age annually

males age 18-49: 37,407
females age 19-49: 34,587 (2005 est.)

Military expenditures percent of gdp

1.49% (2005 est.)

Disputes international

the Albanian Government calls for the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians in neighboring countries, and the peaceful resolution of interethnic disputes; some ethnic Albanian groups in neighboring countries advocate for a greater Albania, but the idea has little appeal among Albanian nationals; the mass emigration of unemployed Albanians remains a problem for developed countries, chiefly Greece and Italy

This page was last updated on 16 September, 2007
Source: CIA >>>


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